Tensions in between the People’s Republic the China (PRC) and also the Republic of China (ROC) in the 1950s result in equipped conflict over strategic archipelago in the Taiwan Strait. Top top two different occasions throughout the 1950s, the PRC bombed islands controlled by the ROC. The United claims responded by proactively intervening on behalf of the ROC.

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The importance of the islands in the Taiwan Strait to be rooted in their geographical proximity come China and also Taiwan and their role in the Chinese civil War. Jinmen (Quemoy), 2 miles from the mainland Chinese city of Xiamen, and Mazu, ten mile from the city the Fuzhou, space located approximately one hundred mile west of Taiwan. When the Nationalist government of the ROC under Chiang Kai-shek well-known that it had lost control of mainland China during the Chinese polite War, the public representative and component of the Nationalist military fled to the island that Taiwan, developing troops ~ above these 2 islands and also the Dachen Islands additional north. In the early on 1950s, Chiang’s pressures launched minor attacks from Jinmen and Mazu against the coastline of mainland China. Leadership on both sides of the strait ongoing to watch the islands together a potential launching pad for an ROC intrusion to take back the Chinese mainland and had an attention in managing the islands.

U.S. Plan toward eastern Asia in the early Cold War contributed to the stress in the Taiwan Strait. In late 1949 and early 1950, American public representative were all set to let PRC forces cross the Strait and defeat Chiang, however after the outbreak that the oriental War in June 1950, the United claims sent its seventh Fleet into the Taiwan Strait to protect against the Korean conflict from spreading south. The appearance of the seventh Fleet upset the Chinese Communists, who moved their troops poised because that an invasion of Taiwan come the korean front. This served to delay military dispute in the Strait until the United claims withdrew its fleet after the oriental War.

Over the next couple of years, the U.S. Government took procedures that allied it much more firmly to the ROC federal government on Taiwan. In 1954, the United centregalilee.coms led the creation of the southeast Asia treaty Organization, which was designed to unify the an ar against the viewed Communist threat. Moreover, U.S. Public official openly questioned the possibility of signing a shared Defense Treaty through Chiang Kai-shek. The PRC viewed these advances as dangers to its nationwide security and local leadership. In the interest of bolstering that strategic position in the Taiwan Strait, the PRC started to bombard Jinmen in September 1954, and also soon expanded its targets to include Mazu and also the Dachen Islands.

U.S. Policymakers taken into consideration sending component of the U.S. Fleet into the Strait. Discussions focused on whether this maneuver would certainly reopen the Chinese Civil war and, if so, what result that would have actually on U.S. Security concerns in the region. U.S. Policymakers walk not want to be drawn into the conflict, however wanted the ROC to maintain regulate of the islands. The ns of Jinmen and Mazu come the People’s Republic might mean one irreparable blow to Nationalist military morale and the legitimacy the the ROC routine on Taiwan. Come assert its continued support of the regime, the United says signed the shared Defense Treaty with the ROC. Back the treaty did no commit the United claims to defending the off-shore islands, it promised assistance if the ROC engaged in a broader conflict with the PRC.


The situation in the Strait deteriorated in so late 1954 and also early 1955, prompting the U.S. Federal government to act. In January 1955, the U.S. Conference passed the “Formosa Resolution,” which gave President Eisenhower total authority to protect Taiwan and the off-shore islands. The U.S. Federal government then announced its determination to defend Taiwan against communist attack, although the did no specify the territory consisted of within its protective perimeter. In exchange because that a personal promise to protect Jinmen and also Mazu, however, Chiang Kai-shek i agreeed to withdraw his troops native Dachen, which to be strategically ambiguous and challenging to defend.

The Eisenhower administration considered countless options, ranging from convincing Chiang Kai-shek to offer up the islands to employing nuclear weapons versus the PRC. Before any of these options became necessary, at the Afro-Asian Conference in April 1955 in Bandung PRC foreign Minister Zhou Enlai announced a desire come negotiate with the joined centregalilee.coms. The PRC’s sudden shift could have actually stemmed from press from the Soviet Union to ease tensions, concern around the an extremely real possibility of war with the unified centregalilee.coms, or changes in interior politics. In September, 1955, the PRC and also the unified centregalilee.coms began talks in ~ Geneva to deal with the issue of repatriation of nationals, but additionally to discuss preventing the escalation that future conflicts.

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Although over there were great reasons for the PRC come stand under in 1955, the resumed that bombardment of Jinmen and Mazu in 1958. This time, the PRC took benefit of the reality that global attention was focused on U.S. Intervention in Lebanon and also barred ROC efforts to re-supply garrisons top top the off-shore islands. The PRC additionally wanted to protest ongoing U.S. Support of the ROC regime. Once again, president Eisenhower was involved that the lose of the islands would hurt nationalist morale and also might be a precursor to the Communist conquest of Taiwan. The united centregalilee.coms hence arranged to re-supply ROC garrisons top top Jinmen and Mazu. This lugged an abrupt end to the bombardment and also eased the crisis. Eventually, the PRC and ROC pertained to an arrangement in which they shelled every other’s garrisons on alternating days. This continued for two decades until the PRC and the United centregalilee.coms normalized relations.