Also, valence is the no. That electrons required to with the steady configuration that octet in the outer many orbit or covering of one atom.

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+ 2 means +2e = Q

-1 means - 1e = Q"


e = electronic charge =


The Coulombian force is given as:







Here, the an unfavorable sign is indicative the the attractive nature of force between two oppositely charged particles.

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Assignment 1: Structural architecture of rectangle-shaped Reinforced Concrete Beams because that Bending

Beam of 25" depth and also 12" width is sufficient.

I"ve enclosed a detailed section the the beam.


We are given;

Beam Span; together = 20 ft

Dead load; DL = 0.50 k/ft

Live load; LL = 0.65 k/ft.

Beam width; b = 12 inch

From ACI code, ultimate fill is offered as;

W_u = 1.2DL + 1.6LL


W_u = 1.2(0.5) + 1.6(0.65)

W_u = 1.64 k/ft

Now, ultimate minute is offered by the formula;

M_u = (W_u × L²)/8

M_u = (1.64 × 20²)/8

M_u = 82 k-ft

Since span is 20 ft, it"s a bit bigger than the average expectancy beams, thus, let"s shot a depth that d = 25 inches.

Effective depth of a beam is given by the formula;

d_eff = d - clear cover - brace diameter - ½Main bar diameter

Now, let"s embrace the following;

Clear sheathe = 1.5"

Stirrup diameter = 0.5"

Main bar diameter = 1"


d_eff = 25" - 1.5" - 0.5" - ½(1")

d_eff = 22.5"

Now, let"s uncover steel ratio(ρ) ;

ρ = total A_s/(b × d_eff)

Now, A_s = ½ × area of key diameter bar

Thus, A_s = ½ × π × 1² = 0.785 in²

Let"s use Nominal variety of 3 bars together our main diameter bars.

Thus, total A_s = 3 × 0.785

Total A_s = 2.355 in²


ρ = 2.355/(22.5 × 12)

ρ = 0.008722

Design moment Capacity is given;

M_n = Φ * ρ * Fy * b * d²<1 – (0.59ρfy/fc’)>/12

Φ is 0.9

f’c = 4,000 psi = 4 kpsi

fy = 60,000 psi = 60 kpsi

M_n = 0.9 × 0.008722 × 60 × 12 × 22.5²<1 - (0.59 × 0.008722 × 60/4)>/12

M_n = 220.03 k-ft

Thus: M_n > M_u

Thus, the beam of 25" depth and 12" broad is sufficient.


Hurricanes space the largest and also most violent storms on Earth. World call these storms with various names prefer typhoons or cyclones depending on where they occur. The scientific term for all these storms is tropical cyclone. Just tropical cyclones that type over the Atlantic Ocean and the east Pacific s are referred to as "hurricanes."


However they room called, all tropical cyclones are created in the very same way.

Tropical cyclones space like gigantic engines that use warm, humid air as fuel. The is why they are created only on seas of warm water, near the equator. Warm and humid air over the seas rises from close to the surface. As the air moves up and also away indigenous the surface, much less air remains near the surface. Another way of saying the same thing is that warmth air rises causing an area of ​​lower air pressure close to the ocean.

The air with greater pressure native the surrounding locations fills the low press area. Then, this "new" air i do not care warm and humid and also rises. As the warm air continues to rise, the surrounding air rotates to take it its place. When warm and also humid wait rises and cools, water in the air creates clouds. The entire cloud and air device spins and grows, fueled by the heat of the ocean and also the water that evaporates native the surface.

The storms that kind north the the equator turn counterclockwise. The storms to the southern of the equator, revolve clockwise. This distinction is since the planet rotates top top its axis.

As the storm device turns faster and faster, an eye develops in the center. In the eye whatever is really calm and clear, with a an extremely low wait pressure. The upper high pressure air drops into the eye.

When the winds in the rotating storm with 39 mph, the storm is called "tropical storm." and when they reach 74 mph, the storm is officially considered a "tropical cyclone," or hurricane.

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Tropical cyclones typically weaken once they touch land, since they deserve to no longer "feed" on energy from temperate oceans. However, castle often development a lot of inland bring about much damages from rain and wind prior to disappearing completely.