If you have ever used a mac you will have undoubtedly unplugged a hard drive and been told you shouldn’t have done that. Windows doesn’t tend to tell you off but the same reasoning applies.
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You can unplug a USB external hard drive while the computer is running. Use the safely remove hard drive button on Windows or eject button on Mac to ensure no data is corrupted. Do not remove internal hard drives while the computer is on. That is the general rule to follow but there are variables here and the safely remove drive button isn’t always necessary.
Can I unplug an internal hard drive while the computer is on?Internal Hard drives using SATA should not be unplugged while the computer is on. Electrical products should always be disconnected from the mains whenever you remove the casing.Apart from the risk of electric shock internal drives tend to be set up for write caching as they don’t tend to go walkies so often and if they do it’s safe to presume that you have shut down your PC and that all the cache has been properly distributed.
ConclusionWhile it is ok to plug in and remove external hard drives without issue it is worth doing it properly if you want to avoid data loss and corruption. The best practice is to use the safely remove hardware feature on windows and the eject feature on Mac. That way you know your data has the best chance at being there next time you plug in the drive. As for internal drives.
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Just turn the machine off and unplug it. There is no benefit from adding or removing a drive and the risk of losing data is as high as getting electrocuted. As always, back up your data!