More 보다 1.2 million human being in the US room living with an HIV infection. That is estimated that 1 in 8 perform not understand they room infected. Through 50,000 brand-new infections every year, some doctors suggest to a absence of testing and also misconceptions around the virus together a major problem. Just how does the virus spread? who is susceptible? can HIV-positive women still have children? For civilization AIDS Day, The scope speaks with Dr. Adam Spivak, an HIV specialist, about the typical misconceptions around HIV/AIDS.
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Interviewer: Misconceptions and also misunderstandings around HIV AIDS up following on The Scope.
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Interviewer: for this reason we"re here with Dr. Adam Spivak. He is an assistant professor in the college of Medicine and also a specialist in HIV. What we"re talking about today is few of the misconceptions. Even in 2016 we"ve learned therefore much about the virus and also what that means, yet some of this misconceptions still space out there. So, let"s walk ahead and also cover several of these. What around transmission? Like, can you gain HIV from kissing one more person or poignant them or sit on a toilet seat or few of those old kind of . . .
Dr. Spivak: HIV is sent primarily sexually, and also it can additionally be transmitted with blood. It can not be sent v saliva, with casual contact, sharing a toilet chair in a public bathroom, share food with someone that is HIV infected. Nobody of these are at all put anybody in ~ risk.
Interviewer: however those stigmas did exist once, right? because they must"ve come from somewhere.
Dr. Spivak: oh absolutely, absolutely, and of course in the early days as soon as AIDS was first described in the at an early stage 1980s we didn"t actually even know what resulted in it. It took 2 years. It was not until 1983 the a novel retrovirus, HIV, was uncovered as the reason of AIDS. So you deserve to imagine a disease that was causing such serious illness and also deaths and also you don"t recognize what reasons it. We didn"t even know entirely that it to be an epidemic for those first few years the a many stigma, a the majority of stories circulate, and certainly those are powerful and have actually a method to persist.
Interviewer: among the various other misconceptions at least historically that could still sort of linger on this day is you simply see some of these old news clippings or these old photographs and things choose that where people are referring to HIV and also AIDS as a happy disease, as a happy cancer or something prefer that. We"re starting to uncover out the that"s not true.
Dr. Spivak: Yeah, no, no, no. Worldwide HIV is sent sexually actually through heterosexual sex together the predominant form of HIV transmission. In the at an early stage days again populations that seemed to be hardest struggle were happy men, men who have sex through men, injection medicine users, sex workers, and interestingly enough people of Haitian descent. Yet again, that has actually persisted in addition to the acknowledgment of the beforehand spread the AIDS among gay males as this populace to it is in shunned. The course once we"re talking around the 1980s we"re talking about a group that was really much discriminated versus that felt very marginalized. Regrettably a brand-new disease, a lethal disease, a an illness of unknown origin that appeared to be spreading like wildfire had the result of amplifying a the majority of those frankly prejudices that were currently present in society.
Interviewer: What around HIV confident women who might be worried about whether or not they can ever have kids or be pregnant? What are several of the misconceptions around that?
Dr. Spivak: one of the actual highlights, one of the glowing spots v regard to avoidance of HIV infection is mommy to child transmission. What we have learned with a variety of really fine done studies and also now plenty of years of clinical practice is the pregnant women v HIV who room started ~ above anti-retroviral treatment on the treatment for HIV really perform not pass on HIV to their infants. We know that also a single dose of the medicines given at the moment of shipment can reduce transmission from mommy to child. It appears as finest we recognize it the HIV transmits at the time of delivery. Even just a sheep or 2 doses that the medicine at the time is a very powerful preventative. Us go a couple of steps additional than that and get mom completely treated, and also in those situations transmission from mother to kid is practically unheard that in the unified States and also Europe where we execute this top top a continual basis today, therefore a actual bright spot in regards to HIV prevention.
Interviewer: What about some of the ideas and also maybe stigmas that the disease is a death sentence, that if you catch it her life"s over?
Dr. Spivak: when AIDS was an initial described in the 1980s up till the mid-1990s, us did not have reliable treatment and this frequently was a reason of fatality in folks the were otherwise young and also healthy and in the element of their lives. The stigma, the stereotype, the ide that HIV AIDS is a death sentence definitely has its root in truth. However, it"s 2016. Beginning in the mid-1990s as we"ve discussed, 1995, "96, the development of what us call mix anti-retroviral therapy, new drugs struggle the market. It"s quiet what we use today. These room fabulous treatments for HIV. Our patients are living long healthy lives. They need to take the drugs every day.Untreated absolutely it is disastrous to the immune system. It leader to what we speak to opportunistic infections and ultimately come death. We observed that really graphically in the first decade and also a fifty percent of this illness. However, what we see now with patient that are able come come in to our clinic, get access to care, take it their medications on a regular basis is that they are leading long, healthy, productive lives and are law fabulously well.
Interviewer: What"s among the optimal things the you would suggest for human being to have actually done top top this world AIDS Day?
Dr. Spivak: oh absolutely i think the most crucial thing that human being can perform is obtain tested. I say that because the vast bulk of the joined States populace has never had actually an HIV test. Currently most people may not be proactively at risk for HIV i m sorry is come say they"re not practicing unsafe sex, they might not it is in injecting drugs, but we perform know and there"ve to be a variety of studies that have shown that there are rather a variety of people living this particular day who have actually HIV who room not diagnosed. That"s a tragedy ~ above a number of fronts. We"ve talked around the ability to get these folks treated. It eventually will influence their health. They"re also at good risk of spreading the disease.So, ns think the test we have for HIV is just one of the best diagnostic exam in modern-day medicine. It"s very accurate. A an unfavorable test in the setting of who who"s no at hazard for HIV is really reassuring. It sits on their clinical chart and they never require to get tested again. We"re make the efforts to acquire most people from zero to one to get tested. Of course the few folks who may have gone to risk in the previous or still practicing high risk habits with regard come HIV, and also we"re able to determine them and diagnose them through HIV, we"re really going to be able to not only assist them but help potentially partners aid them from dispersing the disease.
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