Copper hydroxide (Cu(OH)2) otherwise represented as copper(II) hydroxide or cupric hydroxide is an not natural compound the is a crystalline solid. The is commonly a bluish-green solid or a pale greenish-blue solid. It is a strong base, yet its activity is challenging to detect because of its short solubility in water.

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Alchemists were the ones who very first produced Cu(OH)2 indigenous copper sulfate(blue vitriol) and also NaOH or KOH(Iye) solutions. Back copper hydroxide was well-known to humanity since roughly 5000 BC when copper smelting began.

The compound was commercially produced when it started to be offered in pigments because that ceramics and painting. The commercial manufacturing was throughout the 1600s and 1700s and in colours like bremen environment-friendly and blue verditer.

Structure and also Chemical Formula

The chemical formula the Copper Hydroxide is Cu(OH)2. The molecule is one ionic compound that is composed of the ion OH– and also Cu2+.

The framework of copper hydroxide crystals was uncovered from the method of X-ray crystallography. It was discovered that the main atom Cu is square pyramidal and the planar and also axial lengths of Cu-O bonds are 1.96 Å and also 2.36 Å respectively. Planar hydroxide ion either doubly or triply bridging other adjacent copper atoms.

Properties that Copper Hydroxide

Now, let’s relocate on come the conversation of nature of this compound which means physical properties and also chemical properties.

Physical Properties

Molar Mass97.561 g/mol
AppearanceBluish green or pale greenish blue crystals
Density3.368 g/cm3
Melting Point80C, decomposes to CuO
Solubilityinsoluble in ethanol; negligible solubility in water; soluble in NH4OH
Standard Entropy that Formation (\(\Delta_f H^\theta_298\))-450 K J/mol
OdorCharacteristic copper odor

Chemical Properties

Reaction with ammoniaThe reaction the copper hydroxide and ammonia solution results in the formation of a deep blue colour solution of the complex tetraamminecopper facility ion(+2).In the visibility of oxygen Cu(OH)2 catalyzes the oxidation the ammonia solutions, creating copper ammine nitrates, which room in the kind Cu(NO2)2(NH3)x.It contempt dissolves in focused alkali and also forms 2-, together it is a mildly amorphous chemical.It reacts with sulfuric acid to type copper sulfate.Cu(OH)2 + H2SO4 -> CuSO4 + 2H2OThe bluish compound reacts with nitric mountain to type copper nitrate.Cu(OH)2 + 2HNO3 -> Cu(NO3)2 + 2H2OOrganic Reactions

Copper hydroxide is regularly used in organic synthetic by the addition of potassium hydroxide and a soluble copper(II) salt.

It is provided to produce aryl amines.
Reaction in i m sorry Cu(OH)2 acts as a catalyst to type an aryl amine (Source)
It is supplied to convert acidic hydrazides to carboxylic acids. The is offered to avoid any kind of reaction through sensitive practical groups during the synthetic of carboxylic acids.
Synthesis the a carboxylic acid from an acidic hydrazide (Source)


Copper hydroxide is developed from copper(II) sulfate by the reaction of its dilute solution and also sodium hydroxide. However, the calculation of this method contains impurities choose water and also sodium hydroxide.2NaOH(aq) + CuSO4(aq) -> Cu(OH)2(s) + Na2SO4(aq)It can likewise be produced by the electrolysis the water with the anode as copper.This compound is rarely uncovered as a pure mineral that is greatly found combined with CO2 as basic copper(II) lead carbonate which is the mineral malachite. The mineral that Cu(OH)2 is spertinite.2Cu(OH)2 + CO2 -> Cu2CO3(OH)2 (malachite) + H2O

Applications that Copper Hydroxide

It is supplied in the production that rayon, together copper hydroxide in ammonia solution have the right to dissolve cellulose. The systems of Cu(OH)2 in NH3 solution is well-known as Schweizer’s reagent.It is provided to treat fish in the aquarium industry, as it can kill exterior parasites, flukes, marine ich, brook and also marine velvet.It deserve to be provided as a replacement come the Bordeaux mixture, which is a fungicide and nematicide.Cu(OH)2 is also sometimes offered as a colourant in the ceramic industry.It is offered in a product which is used to control the root growth that a potted plant.Copper hydroxide and also copper sulfate are offered in pesticides and also insecticides in the type of a mixture.It is additionally used as a wood preservative.
The mineral malachite(copper carbonate hydroxide) (Source)


Excessive inhalation that its vapour deserve to lead come cough and also shortness the breath, amongst other things. If inhaled instantly go to fresh air. If the human being is no breathing, carry out artificial breathing.Its vapours are significant eye irritants and also the direct contact of copper hydroxide through the eye can ruin the eye tissue. Wash v eyes open for 15 come 20 min till the chemistry is washed.Prolonged skin call can cause irritation and also even allergies if consistently exposed come it. Wash for 15 to 20 min through soap until the chemistry is wash off.


What room the difficulties caused by the ingestion of copper hydroxide?

It is slightly toxic upon ingestion. That does not reason death but, nausea, vomiting, salivation, gastric pain, diarrhea, capillary damage and liver and also kidney damage are few of the numerous problems brought about by that ingestion.

What is the chemical name of Cu2CO3(OH)2?

The name of the chemistry Cu2CO3(OH)2 is copper lead carbonate hydroxide and it also exists together a mineral dubbed Malachite.

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Does copper hydroxide have actually an ionic shortcut or a name: coordinates bond?

It is external inspection by an ionic bond between one Cu+2 and also two OH– ions.

More on not natural Compounds

Hydrosulfuric mountain (H2S)Ammonium Persulfate ((NH4)2S2O8)
Chlorine Trifluoride (ClF3)Barium carbonate (BaCO3)
Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4)Chromic acid (H2CrO4)