Rhizopus is more than likely the best-known genus in the class of Zygomycetes fungi, which usually live ~ above dead and decaying plant material.
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From: Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology (Second Edition), 2014
P.R. Lennartsson, ... L. Edebo, in Encyclopedia that Food Microbiology (Second Edition), 2014
Rhizopus is probably the best-known genus in the class of Zygomycetes fungi, which generally live ~ above dead and also decaying tree material. This fungi exhibition a complicated metabolism and also produce a range of enzymes that allow them to make use of a wide variety of nutrients. Several different strains that Rhizopus are offered for the production of fermented foods and also beverages, an especially in south-east Asia. In addition, Rhizopus has several commercial applications in the manufacturing of enzymes, including amylases, pectinases, cellulases, proteases, and also phytases, and metabolites such together ethanol, lactic, and also fumaric acids. The cell mass of these fungi additionally has found applications in food and feed industries.
Rhizopus differs from the molds formerly described, because it is nonseptate and produces sporangiospores rather than conidia. The is a very-fast-growing, spreading form of mold which has white mycelia and black sporangia. Rhizopus species form rhizoids in ~ the base of the sporangiophores, and columella in the sporangium (Figure 6). Young sporangia room white before turning black v age. Most likely the most common of the Rhizopus species is R. Stolonifer, the so-called bread mold. As well as bread, Rhizopus causes spoilage that strawberries, other berries, fruits, and vegetables. Rhizopus species have also been diverted from cereal grains, nuts, and meat. R. Oligosporus is offered in making tempeh and certain other mold-fermented foods. Rhizopus is put in the taxonomic stimulate Mucorales and also is somewhat typical, and also probably the most typical genus of the order come contaminate foods. Other genera in the stimulate Mucorales which room nonseptate and produce sporangiospores space Absidia, Mucor, Rhizomucor, Syncephalastrum, and Thamnidium. All of the Mucorales genera the contaminate food are uncovered in the family Mucoraceae. This genera are periodically referred to together mucoraceous fungi. They room a part of the course Zygomycetes and kind zygospores by sex-related processes and chlamydospores (Figure 7). They require high-moisture problems for growth.
Figure 6. Sporangiospore typical of Rhizopus and also other mucoraceous fungi. Reproduced from Spoilage: mushroom in Food – one Overview. Encyclopaedia the Food Science, Food technology and Nutrition, Macrae R, Robinson RK and also Sadler MJ (eds), 1993, scholastic Press.
Figure 7. (a) Zygospore and also (b) chlamydospores. Reproduced from Spoilage: mushroom in Food – one Overview. Encyclopaedia the Food Science, Food technology and Nutrition, Macrae R, Robinson RK and Sadler MJ (eds), 1993, scholastic Press.
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For an ext detailed explanation of these and also other genera of molds, describe the references given in the additional Reading section at the end of this article.