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National research Council (US) Committee top top the Social and also Economic impact of Pathological Gambling. Pathological Gambling: A an important Review. Washington (DC): national Academies press (US); 1999.


National research Council (US) Committee ~ above the Social and Economic impact of Pathological Gambling.

I. Nelson Rose

By I. Nelson Rose, J.D. Harvard 1979, Professor of regulation at Whittier law School. The writer would favor to thank his research assistants, Ranjit Indran, James B. Lewis, Kimberly Phillips, and also Michael Shelton-Frates for their aid with this project.

StateLotteryPari-Mutuel BettingCasinos and also Slot MachinesCharity Bingo & Pull-tabs
District the Columbia181818
New Hampshire182118
New Jersey18182118
New Mexico1818/2118None?
New York181818None
North Carolina?None?
North Dakota18/212118/21
Puerto Rico18181818
Rhode Island18181818
South Carolina21?
South Dakota18/211821?
Virgin Islands18?
West Virginia181818?18

NOTE: A question note without a number means that kind of gambling is legit in the state, but the minimum age requirements, if any, space not known. A number v a inquiry mark method there is a state limit, but it is unclear whether it applies. This is commonly the case with Indian gaming, for which tribes are often totally free to set their very own limits.


Four that 15 tribes have not yet agreed come raise the minimum period to 21.

State through State Analysis

Bingo: Non-profit organizations deserve to run bingo gamings for charity or education purposes. The state has separate statutes for miscellaneous counties and also at least one city—all collection the minimum playing age and also the minimum age for conducting or assisting bingo in ~ 19.

ALASKA—Alaska has actually been considering enabling casino gambling ~ above cruise ships between ports in the state, throughout the course of an global voyage.

Slot machines: Alaska law §43.35.040 sets the minimum period at 18 and also forbids the place of coin-operated amusement and also gaming devices within a radius the 100 yards that a institution building.

Bingo and pull-tabs: State statutes set the minimum period for bingo in ~ 19, however the period for pull-tabs was raised from 19 come 21 ~ above June 26, 1993. Alaska law §§05.15.180 and 05.15.187.


Lottery: the is a misdemeanor to offer a lottery ticket come anyone under 18, yet it is not unlawful to provide the young a lottery ticket as a gift. Arizona Revised law §5-515.

Pari-mutuel betting: Arizona put the legal wagering age at 18, follow to the association of racing Commissioners International, Inc."s Pari-mutuel Racing: 1996 at 59. The state"s statutes collection the minimum age at the period of majority: Arizona Revised law §5-112 states, "A permittee shall not knowingly permit a boy to be a patron that the pari-mutuel mechanism of wagering." This also would allow an operator to raise the defense the it go not recognize a son was underage.

Casinos: Charities have the right to operate casino nights. The state has gone into into compacts with countless tribes, authorizing the operation of slot machines and non-banked (revolving deal) card games. The minimum ages for Indian casinos in Arizona is 18.


Pari-mutuel betting: Arkansas"s steed racing statute specifically prohibits "any human being under eighteen (18) year of period to be a patron that the pari-mutuel or certificate system of wagering performed or supervised by it." yet it is uncertain if such persons are prohibited from attending horse races. The dog racing counterpart, prohibits employing a young or allowing "any minor to it is in a patron in ~ the racetrack." This language seems closer come prohibiting the visibility of children. Arkansas statutes §§23-110-405 and 23-111-308.


Lottery: California has actually a complete set of restrictions, typical of the state lotteries that have actually addressed youth gambling:


No tickets or share in Lottery gamings shall be sold to persons under the age of 18 years. Any person who knowingly sells a ticket or re-publishing in a Lottery game to a human being under the period of 18 years is guilty of a misdemeanor. Any kind of person under the age of 18 years that buys a ticket or re-superstructure in a Lottery is guilty the a misdemeanor. In the situation of Lottery tickets or shares marketed by Lottery video game Retailers or your employees, this persons shall establish safeguards to guarantee that the sales space not made to persons under the period of 18 years. In the situation of the dispensing of ticket or shares by vending machines or other devices, the board of directors shall establish safeguards to help assure the the vending equipments or gadgets are no operated by persons under the age of 18 years.


All ticket or shares in Lottery games shall include, and any tools which dispense tickets or shares in Lottery gamings shall have posted in a conspicuous ar thereupon, a an alert which declares the state legislation prohibits the selling of a Lottery ticket or share to, and the payment of any type of prize to, a person under the age of 18 years.

California federal government Code §8880.52.

"No prize shall be paid to any person under the age of 18 years." Id. §8880.32.

Pari-mutuel betting: The period limit the 18 for horse races was established by regulation of the Racing regulate Board, not by the legislature in a statute.

Casinos: California law permits cities and counties the local option of licensing gaming clubs, restricted to non-banked table games. There are much more than 300 gaming clubs operating throughout the state—age limits show up to be generally 21. The just state border is a restriction limiting operators and owners to be at least 18. California business & Professions code §19809. Indian tribes are operating slot makers without compacts, in technological violation that the managing federal law, the Indian Gaming regulatory Act. All non-compacted Indian gaming, even when legal, is regulation by the tribe, which can change the age limits whenever that wishes. The Cabazon band of Mission Indians, for example, announced in September, 1995 the it was increasing the minimum age from 18 come 21 because that its casino close to Palm Springs and that it was firing all casino employees under 21.

Bingo: Minors (currently period 18) room not allowed to take part in bingo games. California Penal password §326.5.


Casinos: Privately own casinos are limited to three little mountain towns, with $5 preferably bets. Colorado likewise has signed compacts v two Indian tribes; age borders are 21.

CONNECTICUT—Connecticut"s off-track betting operation, owned and also operated through a exclusive company, Autotote, is taking telephone wagers from roughly the nation.

Lottery: Games limited to players over 18.

Pari-mutuel betting: Connecticut permits betting top top jai-alai, and also on racing. Connecticut not just bars everyone under 18 indigenous betting, but General law §12-576 prohibits "the existence of any type of minor under the age of 18 being current in any type of room, office, building or establishment when off-track betting take away place."

Casinos: Charity "Las las vegas Nights" are limited to those end 18. Connecticut general Statutes §186a. The state prohibits anyone under 16 from even being current in a room where gambling is taking place. Connecticut has signed compacts v two Indian tribes. The Mashantucket Pequot Tribe supposedly felt the 18 was as well young, and put its age limit in ~ 21. The tribe"s casino, Foxwoods, might be the most lucrative casino in the world, with blackjack, craps, etc. And also 4,000 slot machines.

Bingo and pull-tabs: In that is "Sealed tickets" state Connecticut prohibits the sale to any kind of person much less than 18 year of age. Connecticut general Statutes §7-169h.


Lottery: Delaware has the strongest restriction of any state lottery, having locked that 18-year-old age limit right into the state constitution. Delaware Constitution short article 2, §17. But state statutes, if prohibiting the revenue of lottery tickets to persons under 18, expressly permit the acquisition of a ticket because that the objective of do a gift through a human 18 year of age or older to a human less than that age. Delaware code Title 29, §4810.

Pari-mutuel betting and slot machines: while racetracks appear to put the border at period 18, the state freshly amended its legislations to allow video clip lottery machines in racetracks, with an age limit of 21. Delaware password Title 29, §4810.

Bingo: A person needs to be 18 or over to participate in any charitable gambling, the prize because that which is money; yet, anyone over 16 may participate in Bingo and also other charitable games. This must limit 16-year-olds and also 17-year-olds to games where prizes room merchandise. Delaware code Title 28, §1139.


Lottery: minimal to players over 18.

Casinos and also Bingo: Charities in the ar of Columbia have the right to run "Monte Carlo Night Parties" and also bingo. The minimum age to participate too to be existing is 18, however minors under 18 might to be existing if accompanied by one adult. D.C. Password §2-2534.


Lottery: restricted to players over 18.

Pari-mutuel betting: Florida has actually not just dog and horse tracks, but likewise jai-alai. State statutes prohibit wagering by a person under the period of 18 yet permit admittance if the boy is add by a parental or legit guardian. Florida law §550.0425.

Bingo: State law avoids anyone under 18 from being allowed to play any kind of bingo game or be affiliated in the conduct of a bingo game in any type of way. Florida statutes §849.0931.

HAWAII—Hawaii, Utah and also Tennessee room the just states through no advertisement gambling. Hawaii, like many other states, does allow "social gambling"—minimum period is 18. Hawaii Revised law §712-1231.

IDAHO—The Coeur d"Alene people has collection up a telephone and Internet lottery, the "US Lottery."

Lottery: Idaho code §67-7413 prohibits the knowing sale of ticket to anyone under 18.

Pari-mutuel betting: Minors room prohibited from making use of the pari-mutuel system. Idaho code §54-2512.

Bingo: A human under 18 might not play bingo because that a cash compensation or in games where the compensation exceeds $25.00 precious of merchandise. Idaho code §67-7703. Therefore, children under 18 may play bingo because that money for smaller prizes.

ILLINOIS—Illinois is unique in specifying a boy (at the very least under the equine racing statutes) together "any separation, personal, instance under the age of 17 years." Illinois modification Statutes chapter 230, §5/3.08. The state likewise makes a difference between casino gambling operation by charities—age 18—and casino gambling operation for profit on riverboats—age 21.

Lottery: the is unlawful to offer a ticket to anyone under the age of 18, however adults may buy tickets as gifts to minors. "If the human entitled to a prize or any winning ticket is under the period of 18 years, and also such compensation is much less than $2500, the director may straight payment that the compensation by shipment to an adult member the the minor"s family or a guardian the the boy of a examine or breeze payable come the bespeak of such minor. If the human being entitled to a compensation or any type of winning ticket is under the period of 18 years, and such compensation is $2500 or more, the director may direct payment to the guardian of together minor. . . ." Illinois amendment Statutes chapter 20, §§1605/15 and 1605/18.

Pari-mutuel betting: Minors (defined as age 17) are forbidden from being admitted together a patron throughout a racing routine unless attach by a parent or guardian. Exceptions are created employees, licensees, owners, trainers, jockeys, or drivers. Illinois modification Statutes chapter 230, §5/26.

Casinos: The state has actually both riverboat and also charity casinos. The state riverboat statute prohibits any kind of person under 21 betting or even being allowed on one area the a riverboat wherein gambling is being conducted. An exemption is created employees, but workers have to be at the very least 21 to perform any function involved in gambling. Illinois modification Statutes thing 230, §10/11.

Illinois charity casinos execute a multi-million dollar business. The "Charitable games Act" permits the following games: roulette, blackjack, poker, pull-tabs, craps, bang, win the dealer, big six, gin rummy, five card stud poker, chuck-a-luck, keno, holdem poker and merchandise wheel through a $10.00 preferably bet. Unlike for-profit riverboat casinos, charity casinos are open to anyone end 18. Illinois revised Statutes thing 230, § 30/8.

Bingo and pull-tabs: Minimum age for bingo and pull-tabs is 18. Illinois modification Statutes chapter 230, §§20/4 and also 25/2. In fact, people under 18 might not be in the area whereby bingo is gift played, uneven accompanied by a parental or guardian.


Pari-mutuel betting: Minimum age to work-related at a racetrack is 16, yet the gyeongju commission have the right to license kids even younger, who room working for their parent or legitimate guardian. Indiana code §4-31-6-5.


Lottery: Iowa legislation prohibits the revenue of a lottery ticket to a human being under the period of 18, but allows adult to buy tickets for them together gifts. Iowa password §§99E.16.

Pari-mutuel betting: Iowa code §99D.11, in a straightforward sentence, prohibits a person under 18 indigenous making a pari-mutuel wager. No one may knowingly permit a person under the age of 18 to do a pari-mutuel wager. Id. At §99D.24.

Casinos: Iowa elevated the minimum gambling period on its riverboat casinos from 18 to 21 in 1989. It versus the law for a licensee to knowingly allow a young to participate in the gambling, or also to it is in in the area that the excursion boat where gambling is being conducted. Iowa code §§99B.6 and 99F.9.

Bingo: Iowa makes some particular exemptions come its general prohibition on gambling by anyone under 21. There room no age borders at all for games of opportunity at carnivals, so long as just non-cash merchandise worth no an ext than $25 is provided as prizes. Bingo likewise has no age limit; cash prizes may be given and also are usually limited to $100; however, the bingo game may sell a jackpot of approximately $800.

KANSAS—The general law that Kansas defines a minor as "a human under 21 years of age"; yet, the lower period of 18 is provided for both legal and illegal gambling. Kansas statutes §§41-2601(l) and (m).

Lottery: Kansas goes additional than many states in keeping the existence of children out that the state lottery. Besides the usual restriction the licensees should be at least 18, the state legislature has actually prohibited the Kansas lottery from "recruiting for employment or together a volunteer any kind of person under 18 years of age for the objective of appearing, gift heard or being quoted in any type of advertising or promotion of any type of lottery in any electronic or publish media." Kansas statutes §§74-8708, 74-8718, 74-8722.

Pari-mutuel betting: The legislature put the exact same ban ~ above the Kansas racing commission, prohibiting the use of kids in commercials. It is a crime to offer a pari-mutuel ticket come a human being knowing such human being to be under 18 year of age. Those under 18 are also specifically barred native buying the ticket. Kansas law §§74-8810 and 74-8839.

Casinos: The state is in the middle of a protracted fight over Indian casinos. Return the legislature developed a share committee ~ above gaming compacts, no mention was make of minimum age limits. Kansas statutes §46-2303.

Bingo and also pull-tabs: Minimum period limit of 18 to participate in the management, operation or conduct of any kind of game that bingo. Kansas statutes §79-4706. Back "conduct" is no the best word, this statute more than likely covers playing the game as well.


Lottery: that is a violation to knowingly market a lottery ticket to someone under 18, and a misdemeanor to perform it a 2nd time. This would certainly not prohibit adults from purchase lottery tickets because that minors. Kentucky Revised law §154A.990.

Pari-mutuel betting: back Kentucky statutes do not specifically cover pari-mutuel betting, Kentucky places an age restriction of 18 ~ above all tasks (except drinking); therefore, that is legal because that anyone 18 or enlarge to gambling at race tracks. Kentucky Revised law §2.015. The state"s racing commissioners also report the minimum age as gift 18. Association of racing Commissioners International, Inc., Pari-Mutuel Racing: 1996 at 59.

Bingo: Kentucky has a "Charitable Gaming" Act, which controls bingo games. The period limit is 18. A charitable organization might permit people under 18 to play bingo if they room accompanied by a parental or legal guardian and also if just non-cash prizes are awarded. Kentucky Revised law §238.545.

LOUISIANA—The recent state to raise the minimum period for some forms of gambling. Casino gaming to be always minimal to players over 21, yet state councilor Dardenne"s SB33 in 1998 amended La.R.S. §§ 27:319, 47:9025(B)(2) and 47:9070, raising the period from 18 to 21 because that State Lottery and privately-owned video poker machines. A 19-year-old and the owner the a bar with video clip poker machines filed suit in January 1999, declare the brand-new law violates the state constitutional provision against age discrimination. AP Newswire J5840 (Jan. 7, 1999). The amendment provides that winnings that underage video clip pokers players space paid come the state. A video poker licensee, or its certified dealer or employee, who enables persons under 21 yet at least 15 come play, reasonably believing the young is end 21, is fined $1,000 because that the first violation, $1,000 because that the 2nd violation in a year, and also loses its license for a 3rd violation. A licensee that knowingly allows a minor end 15 play, or also inadvertently lets a kid under 15 play, will have its patent revoked. The boy is fined up to $100. The State Lottery is treated much more leniently: Knowingly offering a ticket to a minor leader to a fine of $100 to $500; the young is fined as much as $100; yet adults may purchase lottery tickets for children as gifts. Louisiana has everything except sports betting: Riverboat casinos, two Indian casinos, America"s very first urban land-based casino in new Orleans, video poker machines all over with huge numbers at truckstops and racetracks, digital bingo machines, pari-mutuel betting, and also a state lottery.

Lottery: see paragraph above. The law gives that no ticket shall knowingly be sold to any type of person under the age of 21, yet does no prohibit the purchase of a ticket through a human being over 21 because that the function of do a gift to a minor. Louisiana Revised statutes 47:9025 and 47:9070.

Pari-mutuel betting: The state legislature told the state racing commission to take on rules and also regulations to exclude and also eject "persons . . . Who room not of age." Louisiana Revised statutes 4:193. Another state state holds that any type of minor age six or over may, v the permission the the racing association, be allowed to attend any type of race meeting if accompanied by a parent, grandparent, or legitimate guardian but in no case shall any minor in attendance be enabled to engage in wagering. An applicant because that licensure as a jockey, apprentice jockey, practice person, groom, or warm walker need to be at the very least 16. Louisiana Revised law 4:150 and also 4:157.

Casinos and also slot machines: anyone under 21 is not permitted to play any table video game or slot machine, loiter in the designated gaming area that a riverboat, or be employed as a gaming employee. Non-riverboat gaming devices are similarly restricted to players over 21. The legal burden is placed both on the minor and on the gambling operator. Louisiana Revised law 4:525, 4:544 and 4:660.

Bingo and pull-tabs: Louisiana Revised statutes 33:4861.11 prohibits any kind of licensee from allowing any person under 18 to help in "the holding, operation, or command of any type of game of chance," including electronic bingo machines. This statutory language is vague but probably covers players.


Lottery: Maine has actually one the the weakest regulatory schemes for its state lottery. Tickets may not be marketed to everyone under 18, but may not be to buy by adult as presents for minors. The minor that buys illegally is subject to no punishment. In addition, over there is no penalty for unintentionally offering to a minor. The only punishment comes in once a lottery agent knowingly sells to a minor, yet this is punished together a civil, no criminal, violation with a maximum good of only $200. Maine amendment Statutes title 8, §§374 and 380.

Pari-mutuel betting: Off-track betting facilities are open up to youngsters under period 16 when accompanied through a parent, legit guardian or custodian. A human under the age of 18 is not only prohibited native participating in a pari-mutuel pool, but may no come in ~ 15 feet of a betting window or other location for accepting wagers. Maine amendment Statutes title 8, §§275-D and 278.

Bingo and also pull-tabs: no one under the period of 16 year is permitted to take part in the conduct of, or get involved in, the video game of "Beano" or "Bingo," nor shall such minor be admitted come the play area uneven accompanied by parent, guardian or other responsible person. Maine revised Statutes location 17, §319.

MARYLAND—Maryland"s gambling legislations contain a variety of unique quirks.

Lottery: The state follows the other states in requiring that no ticket be sold to a human the seller knows is under 18, while allowing adults come buy tickets for minors as gifts. Lottery sellers should be at least 21. Maryland State federal government Code §§9-112 and also 9-124.

Pari-mutuel betting: The state"s gyeongju commissioners report the minimum age as gift 18. Combination of racing Commissioners International, Inc., Pari-Mutuel Racing: 1996 in ~ 59.

Casinos and slot machines: Charities in some parts of Maryland have the right to operate casinos, consisting of slot machines.

Bingo: Maryland"s bingo regulations are distinctive in 2 aspects: the state legislature has passed details statutes because that individual counties, rather than a solitary law covering the entire state; and also some law explicitly enable 16-year-olds to play bingo. Maryland Criminal legislation Code Art. 27, "Gaming."


Lottery: The state follows the other states in requiring that no ticket be marketed to a human being the seller to know is under 18, while permitting adults come buy tickets for minors together gifts. Lottery sellers have to be at the very least 21. Massachusetts basic Laws thing 10, §§24 and 29.

Pari-mutuel betting: Massachusetts does no even allow minors (age 18) to to visit its horse and also dog races, allow alone make bets. Yet the penalties are very small. Very first time violators are fined no an ext than $100.00. Also permitting a minor to make bets subjects a monitor to a well of no more than $100.00. Massachusetts basic Laws chapter 128A, §§9 and also 10.

Bingo and pull-tabs: In Massachusetts, Bingo is dubbed "Beano." State law requires "that no human under 18 year of age shall be permitted in that section of any building or basic of the licensee throughout such time as such game is being played." Massachusetts general Laws thing 10, §38.

Casinos: The governor of Massachusetts has actually agreed to permit an Indian people to own a casino, v a minimum gambling age of 21.


Lottery: the is a misdemeanor come knowingly sell, or sell to sell, a lottery ticket come anyone under 18. Back tickets might not be marketed to minors, an adult might buy one as a gift for someone under 18. State law likewise requires a human to it is in at the very least 18 in order to acquire a lottery resale license. Michigan Compiled laws §§432.11 and 432.29.

Pari-mutuel betting: "A holder that a gyeongju meeting license shall not knowingly allow a human less than 18 year of age to it is in a patron that the pari-mutuel wagering carried out or supervised by the holder." Michigan Compiled legislations §431.72.

Casinos and slot machines: Charities are allowed to operation "Millionaire parties," i.e., casinos. Michigan has signed compacts with countless tribes, currently operating high-stakes casinos throughout the state. The legislature has voted a minimum age of 18 for all charity casinos. Michigan Compiled regulations §432.110a. Indian casinos show up to be abiding by this period limit.

Bingo and pull-tabs: Charity video game ticket might not be sold to anyone under 18. However, prefer lottery tickets, charity pull-tabs may be bought for minors as presents by adults. Michigan Compiled laws §432.107a.

MINNESOTA—Minnesota is the only state that, at the very least on paper, came close to having actually a substantial plan for taking care of the minimum period for gambling, and it failed. After the compacts to be signed, the state legislature passed a state mandating the Indian casinos be restricted to adults over 21, and included that the minimum period for every other develops of legitimate gambling in the state would additionally be raised from 18 to 21 if an ext than fifty percent the tribes agreed to that limit. The tribes took this together a trick to obtain them come re-open compact negotiations and also rejected the move to 21.

Lottery: Minnesota is unexplained in setting up a complicated system for managing underage lottery players, including prohibiting minors indigenous receiving prizes. This would certainly seem to preclude gifts by adults.

Minnesota law §349A.12. Prohibition acts:

Subdivision 1. Acquisition by minors. A person under the period of 18 years might not buy or redeem because that a compensation a ticket in the state lottery.

Subdivision 2. Revenue to minors. A lottery retailer might not sell and a lottery retailer or other human may no furnish or redeem for a prize a ticket in the state lottery to any kind of person under the age of 18 years.

It is one affirmative defense, definition the load is ~ above the lottery retailer, to prove by a preponderance the the proof that he reasonably and also in great faith relied ~ above the minor"s mirroring a false identification.

Pari-mutuel betting: The period restrictions are the same to the state lottery. Minnesota law §§240.13 and 240.25.

Casinos: much more legal full-scale Indian casinos 보다 Atlantic City, through minimum age borders presently in ~ 18.

Bingo and also pull-tabs: nobody under 18 might buy a pull-tab, tipboard ticket, paddlewheel ticket, or raffle ticket, or a opportunity to take part in a bingo game other 보다 a bingo video game exempt or excluded indigenous licensing; violation is a misdemeanor. A licensed organization or employee who allows a person under age 18 to take part in lawful gambling is guilty of a misdemeanor.

Michigan law §349.2127.

MISSISSIPPI—Mississippi is among the toughest claims on both minors and casinos who violate the law: The underage gambler may not keep the winnings and the casino may not speak it thought the minor was over 21.

Casinos: Mississippi has true riverboat casinos and also dockside casinos that are technically end water but cannot move.


A person under the period of twenty-one (21) years shall not:


Play, be allowed to play, place Wagers, or collect winnings, even if it is personally or v an agent, from any kind of gaming authorized under this chapter.


Be employed together a gaming employee.


Any licensee, employee, dealer or other human who violates or permits the violation of any kind of of the provisions the this section, and any human under twenty-one (21) year of period who violates any type of of the provisions the this ar shall, ~ above conviction, be punished through a good of not an ext than One thousands Dollars ($1,000.00) or imprisoned in the ar jail not an ext than six (6) months, or through both together fine and also imprisonment.


In any prosecution or various other proceeding because that the violation of any type of of the provisions of this section, that is no excuse because that the licensee, employee, dealer or other human being to plead the he thought the human being to it is in twenty-one (21) years old or over.


Lottery: Tickets might not be marketed to anyone under 18; but gifts by adult to minors space permitted. No one under 21 may be licensed as a lottery game retailer. Missouri Revised statutes §§313.260 and 313.280.

Pari-mutuel betting: A weird worded statute prohibits minors from ""knowingly do or attempting to make any type of wager on any horse race." I do not know how a minor can accidentally make a bet. Racetrack licensees may not knowingly allow anyone under 18, uneven accompanied through a parent or guardian, into any type of pari-mutuel wagering area. Licensees are likewise prohibited native knowingly permitting any kind of individual under 18 to location a wager. Missouri Revised statutes §313.670.

Casinos: Missouri has actually two unusual provisions: The state legislature explicitly gave urban the alternative to fully exclude minors from riverboat casinos; and a minor"s parent or conservator may sue come recover any kind of money lost gambling. The various other provisions of the Excursion Gambling watercraft Statute are typical: "A person under twenty-one years of age shall no make a wager on one excursion gambling boat and shall no be enabled in the area the the excursion watercraft where gambling is being conducted; noted that employees of the license is granted operator that the excursion gambling boat who have attained eighteen year of period shall be permitted in the area in which gambling is being conducted when performing employment-related duties, except that nobody under twenty-one year of period may it is in employed as a dealer or accept a wager on an excursion gambling boat." the is a misdemeanor to allow a person under 21 to do a wager. Missouri Revised law §§434.060 and 313.817.

Bingo and pull-tabs: youngsters as young together 16 might play or participate in the conducting of bingo, and even those under 16 might attend, once accompanied by a parent or guardian. Missouri Revised statutes §313.040.

MONTANA—The state has legalized video poker and also keno machines. Montana also has map clubs and permits calcutta betting on sports events. Indian tribes are operating casinos.

NEBRASKA—Nebraska has the unusual arrangement of having actually no state lottery, but enabling cities and also counties to operation lotteries. That then renders a strange age distinction:

Lottery: Villages, cities and counties have the right to operate lotteries in Nebraska—minimum age to to buy a ticket: 19. However, charity lotteries and raffles—minimum period to to buy a ticket: 18. To compare Nebraska Revised statutes §§9-646, 9-810, and also 9-814 with §9-345, 9-430, 9-426. That is a minor misdemeanor for anyone under 19 come knowingly purchase a governmental lottery ticket, and also a much more serious misdemeanor come knowingly market one. While many states either allow adults come buy lottery tickets as gifts, or are silent on the issue, Nebraska explicitly prohibits anyone native buying a ticket because that the benefit of a person under 19.

Pari-mutuel betting: intended aiding or abetting any minor to do a pari-mutuel wager is a misdemeanor. Nebraska Revised law §2-1207.

Bingo and pull-tabs: period 18 minimum; lotteries are allowed to sell "pickle cards," i.e. Pull-tabs. The state also allows keno, i beg your pardon has come to be a big business.


Lottery: The Nevada constitution still prohibits every lotteries, other than charity raffles. The permitting statute does not cite a minimum period for buying a raffle ticket. The age limit of 21 because that casinos probably applies.

Pari-mutuel betting: practically complete ban for anyone under 21. Notice the statutory ban on "loitering," allowing casinos to have actually minors happen through. Likewise note the boy is not allowed to collect; nothing is claimed to protect against casinos from maintaining children"s money, victory or lose.

A person under the period of 21 years shall not:


Play, be allowed to play, location wagers at, or collect winnings from, even if it is personally or v an agent, any kind of gambling game, slot machine, race book, sporting activities pool or pari-mutuel operator.


Loiter, or be permitted to loiter, in or about any room or basic wherein any type of licensed game, race book, sporting activities pool or pari-mutuel wagering is operated or conducted.


Be employed together a gaming employee other than in a counting room. Any kind of licensee, employee, dealer or other human being who violates or permits the violation of any kind of of the provisions the this section and also any person, under 21 years of age, who violates any of the provisions that this ar is guilty the a misdemeanor.

Nevada Revised statutes §463.350.

Casinos: watch Pari-mutuel betting, above. Over there are many additional certain restrictions, all set at age 21. Nevada Revised statutes §129.130 prohibits gaming or employed in gaming of a human being under 21. Ar 205.460 makes it unlawful to enable a human being under 21 to go into a gambling establishment or communicate in gambling in a gambling establishment. Section 609.210 specifies that every human being who employs, or reasons to be employed, exhibits or has actually in his custody for exhibition or employment, any minor, and every parent, relative, guardian, employer, or other person having actually the care, custody, or regulate of any minor, that in any means procures or consents to the employed staff of the minor, in any type of area the a casino whereby there is gaming or where the revenue of alcohol addict beverages is the major commercial activity unless the young is in the casino area to carry out entertainment pursuant to an employed staff contract, is guilty that a misdemeanor.


Lottery: Tickets might not be marketed to anyone under 18; however, gifts by adults are allowed. Brand-new Hampshire Revised statutes §287-F:8

Pari-mutuel betting: minimal to bettor end 21. Brand-new Hampshire Revised statutes §284:33.

Bingo and pull-tabs: State law prohibits everyone under 18 to it is in admitted to or pat bingo games. Brand-new Hampshire Revised law §§287-E:7, 287-E:10 and also 287-E:12.

NEW JERSEY—Mostly as historical accidents, brand-new Jersey has chosen a different standard because that each type of gambling allowed by law. Pari-mutuel: minors. Bingo: 18 v no exceptions. State lottery: 18, yet tickets might be received by children as gifts. Casinos: drinking age.

Lottery: Tickets may not be marketed to everyone under 18; presents by adults space allowed. Minimum period for lottery agents is 21. Brand-new Jersey Revised statutes §§5:9-15 and 5:9-7.

Pari-mutuel betting: Strict constraints on minors, i m sorry is currently 18. New Jersey law §5:5-65.

Casinos: Atlantic City casinos must exclude anyone no old enough to drink alcoholic beverages, at this time 21. Brand-new Jersey statutes §5:12-119. As described in the text, the state permits a casino to claim it did not recognize the minor to be under 21 only when the casino is charged v a criminal offense; strictly liability is implemented for all non-criminal procedures, including governmental fines.

Bingo: Prohibited come anyone under 18. Brand-new Jersey statutes §5:8-32.

NEW MEXICO—Tribes opened up casinos there is no compacts. The branch then signed compacts, however the State supreme Court and federal courts ruled he walk not have the strength to authorize forms of gambling not permitted under brand-new Mexico state law. The Legislature approved a compromise: compacts because that tribes, through a hefty state tax, and also slot equipments for race tracks and fraternal organizations. The people reluctantly agreed come the compacts, however are an overwhelming the taxation aspect, which does appear to violate the federal Indian Gaming regulation Act. The state is unique in permitting betting on bicycle races.

Pari-mutuel betting: Betting top top bicycle gyeongju is restricted to age 21. The steed racing statutes carry out not give a minimum age for place a bet. The state"s racing commissioners report the minimum period as being 18. Association of gyeongju Commissioners International, Inc., Pari-Mutuel Racing: 1996 at 59.

Casinos: Compacts need Indian casinos to border players come a minimum gambling period of 21.

Bingo and also pull-tabs: new Mexico gambling statutes do not clues a minimum period for players.

NEW YORK—New York has actually signed a compact v the Oneida tribe, bring about an Indian casino there is no slot machines; Turning stone is more than likely the most lucrative table-games-only casino in the world. Brand-new York off-track betting operations space taking phone call wagers from around the nation. The state also allows charities to run casino nights; minimum age is 18. Brand-new York basic Municipal legislation §195-a.

Lottery: Tickets may not be marketed to anyone under 18; however, adults may buy tickets for the function of making a gift come a minor. The brand-new York courts upheld the right of the underage recipient to collection if his ticket wins. New York Tax law §1610, Pando v. Fernandez 485 N.Y.S.2d 162, 127 Misc.2d 224 (1984), affirming the the minor"s period is no bar however reversing on other grounds, 499 N.Y.S.2d 950, 118 A.D.2d 474 (1986).

Pari-mutuel betting: Tracks and off-track betting operations are forced to prevent betting by anyone who is actually and apparently under 18 years of age. This provides racing operator the excuse the the minor looked over 18. New York Racing and also Pari-mutuel legislation §104.

Bingo and also pull-tabs: new York general Municipal regulation §486 allows anyone under 18 to get involved in bingo games, if accompanied by one adult.

Casinos: brand-new York has signed a compact v the Oneida people creating transforming Stone, the largest casino in the civilization without slot machines. The state also enables charities to operation casino nights.

NORTH CAROLINA—North Carolina has signed a compact to allow the Cherokee people to operate video clip gaming in ~ its bingo hall.

Bingo: State Bingo statutes execute not point out a minimum age for players.


Lottery: phibìc Dakota is the just state whereby voters refuse to authorize a state lottery, in part because the state already has so countless other forms of gambling, including charity casinos.

Pari-mutuel betting: phibìc Dakota permits a primitive kind of pari-mutuel betting, called Calcutta Pool, on every sporting occasions other than high college contests—age border 18. Phibìc Dakota Century password §53-06.1-07.3. Phibìc Dakota is apparently the only state to put a greater limit—minimum period 21—on pari-mutuel wagering in ~ OTBs than at the track. The state"s gyeongju commissioners report the minimum period as being 18. Combination of racing Commissioners International, Inc., Pari-Mutuel Racing: 1996 at 59.

Casinos: north Dakota Century code §53-06.1-07.1 prevents any person under 21 from directly or indirect playing gamings of pull-tabs, punchboards, twenty-one, calcuttas, sporting activities pools, paddlewheels, or poker. Low limit blackjack, because that charity, is typical throughout the state. Tribes operate full-scale casinos under compacts.

Bingo and also pull-tabs: although pull-tabs are restricted to players over 21, bingo is restricted to players end 18, unless accompanied by one adult. North Dakota Century password §53-06.1-07.1.


Lottery: Ohio Revised code §3770.08 prohibits the revenue of a lottery ticket or possibility to a human under 18 year of age.

Pari-mutuel betting: "Minors," at this time age 18, room barred native participating. Regulation 3731.2.

Bingo: A exorbitant minimum age: Participants and also operators in Bingo games carried out by multipurpose senior centers must be at least 60 year old. Employee at other bingo halls must be over 18. Ohio Revised code §§173.121 and 2915.09.


Pari-mutuel betting: Oklahoma Statutes title 3A§208.4 prevents any kind of organization licensee from knowingly permitting any minor to it is in a patron of the pari-mutuel mechanism of wagering performed by the company licensee.

OREGON—The state lottery operates video clip poker machines and takes bets on sports events. People in the state space operating full-scale casinos pursuant come compacts.

Lottery: The state has a strict scheme for taking care of minors. Lottery tickets may not be offered to anyone under 18. If who under 18 wins the lottery, they may not be paid the prize. This efficiently eliminates adults buying tickets together gifts. Oregon Revised statutes §§461.250, 461.300, and also 461.600.

Pari-mutuel betting: If a track has a reasonable doubt the a patron is end 18, it must require the bettor to do a composed statement the age and furnish evidence of his true age and identity. The state law prevent any person under 18 native entering a gyeongju course, except when accompanied by a human 18 year of age or older that is the person"s parent, guardian, or spouse; or as soon as in the performance of a duty occurrence to employment. It further prohibits any type of person under 12 indigenous entering after ~ 6 p.m.

This statute also prohibits any type of person under 18 from loitering in the wagering area that a gyeongju course. Oregon Revised statutes §§462.190 and 462.195.

Casinos: video poker is minimal to period 21 and older, due to the fact that the gadgets are limited to facilities with liquor licenses. However, the an initial Indian/State casino compact put the minimum period at 18 for video poker machines; all later compacts put the age at 21. Compacts were also signed putting the minimum age at 18 because that bingo and also blackjack. So, the present situation enables one Indian casino come let 18-year-olds gambling at all of its games; the other Indian casinos should restrict maker gambling to period 21, yet may allow 18-year-olds to play every various other game. The compacts because that blackjack are only temporary, and also the state will urge that the age for that game be raised to 21. As well as the Indian casinos, the state has cardrooms for poker and also blackjack under a vaguely worded statute permitting "contests of chance." Oregon Revised statutes §163.575 renders it a crime of endangering the welfare the a minor if the human knowingly induces, causes, or patent a person under 18 to participate in gambling.


Lottery: Lottery tickets may not be sold to anyone under 18, however adults may give tickets as gifts to minors. Lottery agents must more than 21. Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes location 72 §§3761-6, 3761-10.

Pari-mutuel betting: Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes title 4 §325.228 states, "No licensed corporation candlestick permit any person who is actually and also apparently under 18 years of period to wager at a gyeongju meeting carried out by it. No license is granted corporation shall permit any person that is under 18 year of age to attend a equine race meeting performed by it uneven the human being is add by a parent or guardian."

Casinos: Charities deserve to operate casinos under Pennsylvania"s "Small gamings of possibility Act," minimum period limit is 18. Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes title 10 §320.

Bingo: persons under 18 space not allowed to pat bingo uneven accompanied by one adult. Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes location 10 §305.

PUERTO RICO—Puerto Rico enables betting on cockfights, bolitas, and also various other develops of gambling, consisting of full-scale casinos through an unexplained twist: the slot equipments are owned and also operated through the commonwealth government itself.

Lottery: Sales prohibited to persons under 18. Puerto Rico legislations title 15 §§809 and also 814.

Pari-mutuel betting: No age limit is stated in the statute. The state"s racing commissioners report the minimum age as gift 18. Association of gyeongju Commissioners International, Inc., Pari-Mutuel Racing: 1996 in ~ 59.

Casinos: "No gambling room shall be permitted to advertisement or otherwise market their infrastructure to the public of Puerto Rico; or to admit persons under 18 year of age." Puerto Rico regulations title 15 §77. Regardless of the apparent infringement on free speech, this state was claimed constitutional by the United claims Supreme Court in Posadas de Puerto Rico Assoc. V. Tourism Co., 478 U.S. 328, 92 L.Ed.2d 266, 106 S.Ct. 2968 (1986).

Bingo: Puerto Rico legislations title 15 §71 converts bingo to various other gambling gamings such together roulette, dice, and cards, hence bingo would be administer under §77"s 18-year-old age limit.

RHODEISLAND—The Rhode Island state lottery operates video clip lottery terminals in ~ racetracks.

Pari-mutuel: Licensees might not admit anyone under 18 into a structure where pari-mutuel betting or simulcast is taking place, no one knowingly permit any kind of minor to it is in a patron of the pari-mutuel device or any other betting system. Basic Laws the Rhode Island §§41-4-2 and 41-11-4.

SOUTH DAKOTA—South Dakota was one of the first states to allow its state lottery to collection up video clip lottery terminals, slot machines without coin drops. The state also permits full-scale, low-stake casinos in Deadwood and also on Indian land.

Lottery: Lottery tickets may not be sold to everyone under 18. However, come play a video lottery terminal a gambler need to be at least 21. Southern Dakota Codified legislations §§42-7A-13, 42-7A-32, 42-7A-44, and also 42-7A-48.

Casinos: authorized in casino games is limited to gamblers 21 and older. South Dakota Codified legislations §§42-7B-35, 42-7B-4, and 42-7B-25.



Lottery: Lottery tickets might not be sold to everyone under 18, yet adults may provide tickets as presents to minors. Texas government Code §466.253.

Pari-mutuel betting: Minimum age for betting is identified as the minimum period for to buy alcoholic drinks.

Bingo and also pull-tabs: Texas Civil code Art. 179d prohibits any kind of person indigenous knowingly permitting any kind of individual under 18, unless accompanied through a parent or guardian over 18, to it is in admitted come a bingo parlor.

UTAH—Utah, Hawaii, and also Tennessee room the only states prohibiting all creates of commercial gambling. Utah, uneven Hawaii, does not even enable social bets.


Lottery: Vermont limits its state lottery to persons who have "attained the age of majority," at this time 18. However, minors might receive lottery tickets as gifts. Vermont Statutes title 13 §2143, title 31 §§654 and also 661.

Pari-mutuel betting: vermouth Statutes title 31 §613 prohibits a minor indigenous participating in any pari-mutuel pools or also to be admitted to any pari-mutuel enclosure.

Bingo and pull-tabs: like the lottery, restricted to age of majority.

VIRGIN ISLANDS—In 1995 the Virgin Islands began formal measures to legalization casinos.

Lottery: Virgin Islands password title 32 §254 prohibits sales to anyone under the age of 18. This does no prohibit presents by adults to minors.


Lottery: password of Virginia §§58.1-4015 states, "No ticket candlestick be sold to or redeemed from any person under the period of 18 years. Any licensee that knowingly sell or uses to offer or redeem a lottery ticket or shares to or from any person under the age of 18 years is guilty that a course 1 misdemeanor."

Pari-mutuel betting: password of Virginia §59.1-403 prevents any kind of person under 18 from wagering top top or conducting any kind of wagering ~ above the result of a steed race.

Bingo and pull-tabs: instant bingo is limited to players over 18. Code of Virginia §18.2-340.5.

WASHINGTON—The state has entered into compacts allowing tribes to open casinos without slot machines.

Lottery: Revised code of Washington §67.70.120 prohibits sales come anyone under 18. This does not prohibit gifts by adults to minors.

Pari-mutuel betting: The state"s racing commissioners report the minimum age as gift 18. Combination of gyeongju Commissioners International, Inc., Pari-Mutuel Racing: 1996 in ~ 59.

Casinos: as well as Indian casinos, Washington allows cardrooms, where poker and also blackjack space played. Revised code of Washington §9.46.0305 prevents minors native wagering.

Bingo and also pull-tabs: These gamings may be extended by §9.46.0305, discussed above.

WEST VIRGINIA—The West Virginia state lottery operates video clip lottery terminals in racetracks.

Pari-mutuel betting: The state"s gyeongju commissioners report the minimum period as being 18. Combination of racing Commissioners International, Inc., Pari-Mutuel Racing: 1996 at 59.

Bingo: Bingo operators room prohibited from allowing anyone under 18 to get involved in the playing of any kind of bingo video game with expertise or factor to think that the individual is under the age of 18. However, an individual 18 may attend the playing of a bingo game when accompanied by and under the supervision of one adult family member or a legal guardian. West Virginia password §47-20-4


Lottery: Wisconsin has a substantial statutory scheme for taking care of minors and lottery tickets. Like countless other states, the minimum period is 18, back minors may receive tickets together gifts. Wisconsin is among the few states to specifically pursue a minor"s adult agent: The state renders it a crime to offer a lottery ticket not only to a minor yet to an adult that is buying on behalf of the minor and not together a gift. Wisconsin law §§565.17, 565.30, 565.12, and 565.10.

Pari-mutuel betting: Wisconsin statutes §444.09 prevents any kind of person under 18 "to be admitted to a racetrack, unless accompanied by a parent, grandparent, great-grandparent, guardian or spouse who is at the very least 18 year of age, or uneven accompanied by one more person at the very least 18 with the written permission of the minor"s parent or guardian." also at the monitor 18-year-olds may not make a wager or receive any kind of payout top top a wager and no licensee might knowingly accept a wager or pay the end winnings to anyone under 18. No one under 16 might work in any kind of pari-mutuel wagering activity.

Bingo and also pull-tabs: everyone under 18 may not beat bingo, uneven accompanied by that person"s parent, guardian, or spouse. Wisconsin statutes §563.51.

Casinos: The state gone into into compacts permitting tribes to open up full-scale, high-stake casinos—with expirations dates beginning in 1998. As soon as the compacts came up for renewal, the state inquiry for much more money and also insisted that the period limit be increased from 18 to 21. So far, 11 the the state"s 15 tribes have agreed. Wisconsin: new Compacts insurance State tribal Payments, Casino Journal"s nationwide Gaming review at p. 12 (January 4, 1999).

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Source: I. Nelson Rose, Gambling and also the Law: Minimum Legal age to ar A Bet. Costa Mesa, CA: Whittier law School, 1999. Reprinted through permission.