centregalilee.com and also Earth science Terms and Definitions

Click a letter listed below to uncover the meaning of a geology term.

You are watching: Earth science words that start with x

A B C D E F G H ns J K l M N O ns Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A couple of of our favourite definitions...


Alluvial Fan

A fan-shaped wedge the sediment that generally accumulates on land where a stream increase from a steep canyon top top a level area. In map check out it has the shape of an open up fan. Alluvial pan typically form in arid or halfdry climates. Presented in the photo is the Badwater Alluvial pan of fatality Valley.



A conspicuous hill v steep sides and also a level top. The peak is typically a cap-rock the resistant material. This framework is commonly an erosional remnant in an area the flat-lying sedimentary rocks. The photograph shows the south confront of Fajada Butte, Chaco culture National historical Park.


Coring Bit

A hollow cylindrical drill little bit used because that cutting a cylinder the rock, referred to as a "core," indigenous a well. The bottom of the bit is made of steel with embedded diamond abrasives because that grinding with rocks. Together the little cuts down through the rock, the "core" is contained within the last section of drill pipe. Around every thirty feet, every one of the drill pipe and the drill bit are traction from the well so the core can be lifted to the surface and also removed. Coring is very slow and an extremely expensive work.


Density Current

A gravity-driven circulation of a dense fluid down a slope through a fluid of lower density. They happen on floor (pyroclastic flows) or underwater (turbidity currents). Thickness currents frequently occur underwater wherein the fluids have differences in temperature, salinity, or concentration of exposed particles. The image shows a pyroclastic circulation descending under the southern flank of Merapi Volcano (Indonesia) in 2006.


Earth Science

Earth scientific research is the study of the Earth and also its next-door neighbors in space. It contains the research of solar mechanism astronomy, centregalilee.com, oceanography and also meteorology. Some human being assume that "centregalilee.com" and also "Earth science" are identical, yet that is not true. "centregalilee.com" is a much more limited science and just one component of "Earth science."


Colored flicker of irradiate emitted indigenous a gemstone that an outcome from incident light being separated into its component colors together it passes with the stone. Each gem material has a characteristic dispersion. Some have exceptional dispersion and also produce a an extremely intese fire. Although many people think that diamond has the the strongest dispersion of every gems, a couple of gems such as sphalerite, demantoid garnet (shown in the photo), sphene, and zircon have an even greater dispersion.


Garnet is the name of a team of silicate minerals that share a typical crystal structure, yet they vary in composition. Many garnets room red in color, yet the mineral also occurs in orange, yellow, purple, green, pink, black, and other colors. Presented in the photo from height to bottom are: spessartine, almandine, mali, rhodolite and also tsavorite. In enhancement to being used as a gem, garnet is provided as one abrasive, filter medium, sand-blasting granule and waterjet cut granule.


There is no universally i agree upon an interpretation for the word "gemstone." words usually triggers an image of attractive mineral materials that have been fashioned into gems to be worn for an individual adornment. Part people believe that gemstones should additionally be durable, rare, an important and skillfully cut - but some items formally referred to as "gemstones" lack all of these. Plenty of gemstones room rocks, essential materials, mineraloids or also objects from space that lack durability, rarity, intrinsic value and are supplied in their herbal state. As an instance consider a little pearl offered in an inexpensive necklace sold at Walmart. Hundreds of materials have been provided as gemstones, see photos of end 100 here.


centregalilee.com is the research of the Earth, the products of which the is made, the structure of those materials, and the processes acting top top them. It includes the examine of biology that have inhabited ours planet. Vital part the centregalilee.com is the study of how Earth’s materials, structures, processes and also organisms have readjusted over time.


An area of enhanced dip in otherwise tenderness dipping strata. The picture shows a monocline end a reverse fault.

Normal Fault

A fault with vertical movement and an inclined error plane. The block over the fault has moved down relative to the block below the fault. The dip angle of the fault airplane is in between 45 and also 90 degrees. Regular faults space the typical structural style of divergent plate boundaries and portions of the crust under extensional anxiety such together the east Africa Rift.


A Hawaiian term because that a lava circulation that has a surface flow structure the looks favor coiled rope or cord. Lavas through a relatively low viscosity can kind a "ropy" surface. The term is additionally used for the rock materials after the flow has cooled.


Roughneck is a slang term for an oil ar worker that does difficult manual labor on the floor that a drilling rig. Much of their work is the repeated manipulation the drill pipe as the fine is being drilled and also when all of the pipe need to be pulled to change the bit. Castle do any kind of other work-related as required to keep the drilling progress moving. They have to be strong, physically fit enough to work lengthy hours, ready to get very greasy and also dirty, and work out in all varieties of weather transparent the year.


Small creatures that have adjusted to a irreversible life in a cave. They are so well adjusted to life in a cavern that they would be unable to endure in the surface environment. To endure in the darkness, troglobites have actually highly-developed senses of hearing, touch and also smell. Countless troglobites have lost their sight and also their pigments.

Zoned Crystal

A decision that walk not have uniform color or composition. This can be brought about by a change in the ingredient or temperature the the fluid from which the decision was growing; twinning; or, sports in exposure to warmth or radiation. Minerals such together olivine or plagioclase which have a heavy solution collection are typically zoned. Shown in the picture are 2 faceted tourmalines reduced from zoned crystals created by growth. The one ~ above the ideal is well-known as "watermelon" for apparent reasons. Also, take into consideration ametrine, a bicolor quartz that is a mix of AMEthyst and ciTRINE thought to be led to by twinning.

thesaurus of Geological state - just $19.99 every scientific disciplines have crucial vocabulary that students and professionals must recognize to learn and also communicate effectively. A centregalilee.com thesaurus that is offered regularly is among the most important tools for developing professional competence. A an excellent dictionary have to be ~ above the desk of every geologist and within simple reach. This thesaurus is compact and also inexpensive at just $19.99. Much more information.
A B C D E F G H i J K together M N O ns Q R S T U V W X Y Z

More centregalilee.com Topics
General centregalilee.com
Plate Tectonics
Geologic Hazards

Rocks: Galleries the igneous, sedimentary and also metamorphic rock photos with descriptions.
Minerals: Information about ore minerals, gem materials and also rock-forming minerals.
Volcanoes: Articles about volcanoes, volcano hazards and eruptions past and also present.
Gemstones: vibrant images and also articles around diamonds and colored stones.
General centregalilee.com: Articles around geysers, maars, deltas, rifts, salt domes, water, and much more!
centregalilee.com Store: Hammers, field bags, hand lenses, maps, books, hardness picks, yellow pans.
Earth science Records: highest mountain, deepest lake, biggest tsunami and also more.

See more: Which Hole Do You Finger Yourself, Female Masturbation Beauty Tip

Diamonds: Learn about the properties of diamond, its countless uses, and diamond discoveries.