The course of a river starts in reasonably high areas, v a an extremely narrow width depending on the source. However, various processes take place in different stages downstream. There room three distinctive stages: the upper, middle, and also lower course. The top course, generally known together the source, has actually a little width, is shallow, and has few small tributaries. In the center phase, the river morphology alters in width and depth. Together the flow gathers momentum downstream towards the reduced course phase, the broad reaches that is widest point. The complying with factors contribute to the widening that a flow downstream.

Volume that Water

The volume the water boosts downstream due to increasing inlets native tributaries and rainwater. The flow downstream is characteristically turbulent, chaotic, and erratic. The bigger discharge needs a bigger an are due come the added volume that water. Come contain the water, the flow enlarges along the banks, leading to an enlarged width.


As a river flows downstream, that is velocity increases. The rate increases because of the fact that more water is included from tributaries follow me the food of the river. Additionally, much less water is in contact with the river bed, which outcomes in less energy needed get rid of friction. The larger mass the water causes broader and depths water channels in stimulate to permit water in the flow to flow an ext freely.

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The slope of a flow decreases as it flows progressively downstream. Gravitational pressure is more powerful uphill, however gentle in the lower course. The water tends to flow slowly early to greater water friction, thus the broad increases. In the direction of the mouth, the gradient is lower, allowing water to flow on a vast surface area.


River water carries millions of tonnes that sediments. The sediments space both rely load and bed loads. Exposed water load is much more relaxed together the gradient and also velocity decreases. The bed load, which move downward through a procedure of saltation, collides through each other less as the turbulence decreases. Therefore, the water occupies more horizontal an are to accommodate the sediments, for this reason making the wider.

Change in landscape

The land surface ar is flatter as a river ideologies the mouth. Many rivers will empty right into lakes, oceans, or swamps which have actually a flat terrain. Therefore, a river often tends to gain much more space horizontally, leading to a better width. A flow constantly interacts through the physics environment, and also therefore can overflow downstream, which results in flooding.

Human activities

Human settlement and intensive land usage are more common in lowland areas. Human activities lead to more bare land. Because that example, deforestation and urbanization cause the excavation of sand and also stones for building along riverbeds. These species of land reform ultimately an outcome in the widening the a river.


Water upstream may be written of snow and ice. However, downstream the climate may readjust and end up being gradually warmer, leading to snow and ice come melt. This melting boosts the circulation of a river, which boosts its width.

Channel patterns

Near the source, general river geomorphology is categorized as a straight channel. However, downstream the water flow meanders as result of the erosion of outer parts of bends in the river. The river becomes broader as the meandering channel is eroded and washes away more materials follow me the riverbank.

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The cross-sectional area the the river, therefore, becomes larger.