Sodium is a soft, silvery-white, very reactive metal. Sodium is one alkali metal, being in team 1 of the regular table, because it has actually a single electron in its external shell that it easily donates, creating a positively charged atom—the Na+ cation.

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Metallic sodium is used mostly for the manufacturing of sodium borohydride, salt azide, indigo, and triphenylphosphine. Employed just in rather dedicated applications, only around 100,000 tonnes the metallic sodium are created annually. Sodium is now created commercially through the electrolysis that molten sodium chloride.


Protons and Neutrons in Sodium

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Sodium is a chemical aspect with atom number 11 which method there are 11 protons in its nucleus. Total variety of protons in the cell nucleus is dubbed the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, wherein e (elementary charge) equates to to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.

The full number of neutrons in the cell nucleus of one atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference in between the ghost number and also the atomic number is well-known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.

For secure elements, over there is typically a variety of secure isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have actually the very same atomic number and also are as such the same element, however differ in the variety of neutrons. Mass numbers of usual isotopes the Sodium are 23. 

Main isotope of Sodium

Its just stable isotope is 23Na. Two radioactive, cosmogenic isotopes space the byproduct the cosmic beam spallation: 22Na has a half-life the 2.6 years and also 24Na, a half-life the 15 hours; all various other isotopes have a half-life of much less than one minute.

Sodium-23 is written of 11 protons, 12 neutrons, and also 11 electrons. Acute neutron radiation exposure (e.g., native a nuclear criticality accident) converts few of the steady 23Na in human blood plasma come 24Na. By measure up the concentration that this isotope, the neutron radiation dosage come the victim have the right to be computed.

Sodium-22 is composed of 11 protons, 11 neutrons, and 11 electrons. Odium-22 is a radiation isotope that sodium, experience positron emission to 22Ne v a half-life that 2.605 years. That is likewise commonly offered as a positron source in positron annihilation spectroscopy.

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Sodium-24 is composed of 11 protons, 12 neutrons, and also 11 electrons. Sodium-24 is among the most necessary isotopes. The is radioactive and created from common sodium-23 by ghost bombardment. As such its task accounts for many of the reactor coolants task when reactor is at complete power.