Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Volume 14, concern 4, 1 July 2009, Pages 790–822, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01471.x
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Abstract

It has actually been argued that blogs, as an extension of 1960s ‘New Journalism,’ have actually become vital form of alternate media. At their idealized best, blogs have the right to report news there is no the border of censure or the pressure of advertising. This argument says that blog can therefore offer a depth analysis, based upon a diverse selection of sources and also contributing citizen commentators, which is not possible through contemporary corporate, tendency outlets. This exploratory study offers both crucial discourse and also content evaluation to research 344 posts, 1,712 hyperlinks, and also 10,401 comments from 4 political/current events blogs in ~ a 7-day period. This research argues that ahead conceptualizations of alternate media, at the very least in relation to the political/current occasions blogosphere, might need reconsideration.

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Journalism, in the broadest sense, examines proximate topics the involve influential individuals and also have wide effects (MacDougall & Reid, 1987). Using these unique qualities as the foundation for growth, tendency journalism has progressed into a modern bureaucratic network of institutions that target to observe and also objectively paper events in a mutual reality (Davis, 1996). Yet, like all cultural institutions (Williams, 1977), journalism"s norms and also practices are constantly changing. The id of journalism as a solidified structure of institutionalised practices, such as news beats and organizational routines (Shoemaker & Reese, 1996) certainly exists yet in parallel v news together a manufactured representation of one elite belief (Herman & Chomsky, 1988; Tuchman, 1978). News is much more the result of social influences (Gitlin, 1980; Hall, Critcher, Jefferson, Clarke, & Robert, 1978) than any kind of objective embodiment that reality.

The recognition of ideological pressures in the news has actually led many to think that mainstream journalism might not maybe to offer its democratic role in culture (Tuchman, 1978). The is vital that research study not polarize mainstream and alternative media together complete, binary opposites. However, over there are certainly tendencies that location media on very different points across the alternative/mainstream spectrum. Mainstream media are generally in search of commercial, for profit, missions as the an inspiration for publication (Alternatives in print, 1980). They likewise privilege organizations over movements (Downing, 2001) and also operate within a “hierarchy the access” (Atton, 2002) that usually dictates that is sourced according to perceived credibility. This would certainly suggest, for example, the the New York Times can be considered more mainstream 보다 The Osterley Times. The previous is replete through advertising and paid subscriber benefits, as well as ‘objective’ content written only by professional reporters, who space paid by the New York Times. In contrast, The Osterley Times, which has actually no advertising and is created by an unknown writer with no detailed professional affiliations but holds a stated ideological position from the libertarian left, would certainly be checked out as more alternative.

In solution to a distrust of tendency journalism, ‘alternative’ media creates have existed in various forms alongside mainstream journalism because that centuries (Downing, 2001). New Journalism, an opinionated and stylized type of reporting (Hartsock, 2000) the emphasized the reporter"s subjective interpretations, arised in the 1960s and also is said to it is in a precursor to the contemporary political present events blog (Wall, 2005). Tom Wolfe was very early pioneer of brand-new Journalism, through the 1963 publication of an essay titled, “There go (varoom! varoom!) the kandy-kolored (thphhhhh!) tangerine-flake streamline baby (rahghhh!) roughly the bend (brummmmmmmmmmmmmmm)…” as the title could suggest, new Journalism relied top top experimental and subjective creating that directly countered plenty of of the standardized standards of mainstream journalism. The concomitant timing of new Journalism v the politically stormy ‘60s argued that “when politics and social crises arose, new forms the news might also appear” (Wall, 2005, p. 155).

This explanation helps to give some context to the to explode of existing events blogs throughout the Iraq War and the tumultuous presidency of George W. Shrub (Herring, Scheidt, Bonus, & Wright, 2005). Profit-centered, corporate, multinational news conglomerates, which now own most of the world"s tendency media (McChesney, 2004), may also assist to define the increase of political, existing events blogs. As mainstream news content continues to emphasize entertainment and also sensationalism (Williams & Delli Carpini, 2000), more independent, different political news blog have gained attention for your decisively different technique to present events (Atton, 2004).

At your idealized best, blogs have the ability to report news there is no the limit of censure or the pressures of advertising. This argument argues that blog can therefore offer a deeper analysis, based ~ above a diverse selection of sources and contributing citizens commentators, i m sorry is not feasible through contemporary corporate, mainstream outlets. This research uses both an important discourse and content analysis to examine four political, current events blogs together a instance study that blogs together an ‘alternative’ media space. This particular type of blog was chosen as that can quickly be conceptualised in ~ most interpretations of different news media as a counterpoint to traditional mainstream news fare. Over there is additionally a wide range of political, present events news blogs throughout the ideology system spectrum, providing strong potential for a cross-pollination the ideas and also content.

Blogs

There has been an explosion of blog on the Internet. In 1999, there were around 50 present blogs and also they were only recognized by a few individuals (Johnson, Kaye, Bichard, & Wong, 2007). However, by 2006, 29 percent (57 million) that American internet users accessed blogs (Lenhart & Fox, 2006) and also by 2007, 8 the end of 10 americans knew what a blog was and almost fifty percent of America had actually visited blog (Synovate, 2007). As an instance of blog proliferation, the readership and authorship that political blogs had already exceeded that of political publish magazines and also columns through the year 2004 (Mayfield, 2004).

This phenomenal development may be as result of the dynamic nature the blogs. While some blogs space updated weekly, many much more are to update hourly (or even much more frequently), through postings in reverse chronological order. Many are interactive and allow viewers to article comments (Lenhart & Fox, 2006). Unlike static websites, blogs depend upon hyperlinks not just to boost attention come their very own blog, but to additionally ensure that users can be conveniently led to appropriate information. At their idealized best, weblogs have been stated to it is in a room to reflect on the ‘deluge that data’ (Blood, 2002b) that us receive, providing an antidote come the mass-mediated, corporatized society that surrounds us. They have the capacity to report news there is no the border of censure or the pressures of advertising and draw upon a diverse selection of sources. At their reductive worst, bloggers have been claimed to be strongly opinionated and also even vitriolic in solution to those that oppose their political location (Johnson & Kaye, 2004).

The to explode of blog on the web was largely made possible by advertising weblog software, such as Blogger (Blood, 2002b). V such user-friendly software, individual citizens without any kind of institutional affiliations, might feasibly create and publish contents on a potentially worldwide scale with little technical expertise (Blood, 2002a). While most blogs don"t watch a portion of your potential audience, blog do have far much more democratic possibility than previous publish or digital publication formats. The is important to note that if the modern technology is easily accessible for conversation, the linguistic discourse of blogs can likewise operate in ~ the authoritarian level the a one-way, linear kind of communication. Bloggers might just as conveniently be talking at your audience rather than with your audience (Clark, 2002). However, blogs remain a relatively easy-to-construct, interactive, flexible, and also inexpensive setting of self-publication (Herring et al., 2005).

Blogs can certainly be on any topic. Indeed, Kelly and Etling"s (2008) work evaluating the importance of poetry in the Iranian blogosphere demonstrates that also the majority of blog within a culture can be on a topic previously undetected by other communities. Most blogs continue to continue to be firmly rooted in an individual disclosure (Lenhart & Fox, 2006). The bulk of blog contain a an individual diary or journal, the possibility for two-way communication (Herring et al., 2005; Viégas, 2005), and also are obtainable for open access (Lenhart & Fox, 2006).

The blogging ar has a widely provided practice of linking come others that have already linked come you. If this deserve to be viewed as an plot of kindness, over there is additionally a distinct possibility that a self-limiting ‘echo chamber.’Kumar et. Al. (1999) were among the an initial to indicate that like-minded teams quickly kind and self-replicate online. Such circuitous actions has been called an “unbearable incestuousness” (Clark, 2002). Tateo (2005) check 77 right-wing Italian websites and also discovered a highly coherent, strict knit network that intralinked grcentregalilee.coms. With the circuitousness of together hyperlinks, superstars deserve to be born. In very early and intuitive evaluation of digital culture, Mead (2000) asserted that being blogged (or hyperlinked) by a well-known blogger “is the blog indistinguishable of having your publication featured ~ above Oprah” (p. 102). Come repay the favor, the blogged easily becomes the blogger and a self-referential circle deserve to begin. Together this circuitous spiral proceeds around, that inevitably shrinks and also an elite A-list (Clark, 2002; Trammell & Keshelashvili, 2005) that blogs deserve to emerge. Together a grcentregalilee.com then might rely upon coded and really directed messages that just the regular astute viewer can decipher. The result is that the when heralded egalitarian web runs the risk of becoming a capitalistic positioning shuffle.

While extremely complicated to measure, a recent content analysis estimated that a an extensive 17 percent that weblogs sheathe news and also current to work (Papacharissi, 2004). An individual current events news blogs, meant to offer as an alternate to mainstream news (Haas, 2005), have begun to proliferate ~ above the Internet and many tend to monitor a similar pattern of presentation. Numerous are produced largely from various other news providers" content through attached an individual commentary. There is usually tiny or no support from this firm sponsors and, it has been argued, no gatekeepers–at least in the sense commonly thought of in mainstream journalism (Lasica, 2002).

Current occasion blogs have been discovered to be exceptionally influential in national politics (Bahnisch, 2006; Mayfield, 2004; Trammell, 2006). Certain examples come from the sudden climb of Howard Dean"s 2004 U.S. Presidential bid (Stromer-Galley & Baker, 2006); or the resignations the news executive, management Eason Jordan from CNN (Seeyle, 2005), senator Trent Lott as the U.S. Senate bulk Leader (Bowman & Willis, 2003), and Dan rather from the CBS news anchor workdesk (Glaser, 2004). There is additionally research to suggest that blogs aided fuel the speculation that john Kerry won his U.S. Presidential campaign based upon premature leave polls (Carlson, 2007). Drawing from this examples and also countless others, political/current events blogging has actually been heralded together the start of the finish of journalism"s sovereign reign (Rosen, 2005). This brand-new alternative type of “amateur journalism” (Lasica, 2003) has actually been suggested as the long-awaited answer to journalism"s longstanding weaknesses (Regan, 2003).

Yet, the breadth and depth of this ‘amateur journalism’ remains to be seen. Schiffer (2006) examined five of the height political, current events blogs and also found that they had a strong impact on tendency editorial pages however very little effect on tough news pages or tv coverage, in spite of large-scale mobilization efforts online. And, for every its said points the difference, present events blog have additionally been discovered to be remarkably similar to tendency journalism–at least in regards to journalistic norms. Reese et.al (2007) examined six news blogs and found the in the regurgitation of tendency content, this blogs noted “an important secondary market” (p. 257) for corporate journalism. However, they likewise found that current events blogs did manage to retain citizen voices that are not found in timeless media. These authors did no uncover a resounding echo-chamber and also found a far-ranging number of web links to other, outside sites (Reese et al., 2007). This conclusion is not shared by other research, which has uncovered that existing events politics news blogs connect primarily come their very own respective, ‘like-minded,’ ideological communities (Adamic & Glance, 2005). However, in this same study the 40 ‘A-list" blogs, the was additionally found the blogs were much more likely to connect to tendency news resources than come each various other (Adamic & Glance, 2005).

As this evaluation suggests, there is not yet a clear expertise of just how political, current event blog operate and in what way they interconnect with mainstream and alternative media. However, numerous scholars think blogs can offer a “radically different kind that news discourse 보다 the one found in tendency news media” (Haas, 2005, p. 388). This exit from tendency news content to an activist, alternative space is rooted within three unique capabilities of blogs: the capacity of blog to steer tendency news coverage; the possibility for independent and also noncorporate reporting, which is based on a vast array of diverse sources (Bruns, 2003); and the junxtap location of alternative, independent reporting v uncensored commentary.

Given the fairly nascent nature of research study in this area, the following hypotheses will be tested:

H1: political news blog will link to alternative news sources more than to mainstream news sources.

H2: politics news blogs will link to opposite-minded present event blogs much more than they attach to like-minded blogs.

H3: politics news blog will attach to unofficially sources, such as personal websites and also blogs, mainstream and alternative news blogs, and different news sources an ext than to official sources, such as government websites and also mainstream outlets

Blogs, unlike other creates of news, have actually been stated to emphasize personalization and audience joining in the production of content (Wall, 2005). Haas (2005) counters previous research in the area and also cautions scholars no to take these cases at confront value, but instead urges researcher to watch blogs as component of a continuing trajectory in modern-day media. Yet, the differences in between mainstream and alternative media can be vast and place the two areas of journalism on the very same trajectory threats missing an essential defining qualities of each. centregalilee.com research into alternative media is still emerging (Atton & Wickenden, 2005). At a time as soon as the “media … is more comprehensive than ever before” (Downing, 2001, p. V), research needs to much better address and also understand the complex, however distinct, differences and similarities the exist throughout the mediated spectrum. However, it is yet unknown how existing events blogs perform versus theoretical conceptualisations of an alternate space.

What renders an alternative Media Alternative?

Alternative media have actually been traditionally very hard come categorize (Downing, 2003). Atkinson (2006) defines alternative media as “any media the are created by noncommercial sources and attempt to change existing society roles and routines through critiquing and daunting power structures” (p. 252). The existing social roles and also routines that different media seek to critique typically stem from capitalism, consumerism, patriarchy, and also the nature that corporations. The is this foregrounding in social critique that has historically placed alternate media in diametric opposition come the tendency press. This opposition allows for an elevation ‘alternative communication’ the constructs different social orders, traditions, values, and also social knowledge (Hamilton, 2000). Alternate media offer an live independence platform for grcentregalilee.coms and individuals that have been marginalized through the tendency media (Atton, 2002) and also provides much-needed context. Mainstream media have actually been traditionally perceived as maximizing audiences through fill journalism the is conventional and formulaic, leading to content that can be binary and reductive. In contrast, alternate media often advocate program of social adjust through the structure of politicized and in-depth society commentary (Armstrong, 1981; Duncombe, 1997) uncovered through distinctive, independent alternate journalism.

Alternative media have actually the capacity for “transforming spectators into energetic participants of day-to-day dealings and also events affecting their lives” (Tracy, 2007, p. 272). Indeed, alternate media frequently view their role as “one of educating and also mobilizing the ‘masses’ in the company of the cause or movement” (Hamilton, 2000, p. 359) and also generally protect against one-way develops of communication. The regular solicitation from alternative media outlets because that feedback from viewers is purposeful so that an ‘egalitarian relationship’ can be formed between the media outlet and the viewers (Rodriguez, 2001).

Social and political movements that make an excellent effort come forge partnerships with different media (Atton, 2002; Santa Cruz, 1995). In an examination of historical different media, such together Freedom"s Journal, Mattachine Review and also RAIN,Ostertag (2007) discovered that these publications played a critical role in bringing about social change. In another work, he examined five significant movements: woman suffrage, gay and lesbian issues, the secret Vietnam GI press, abolitionism, and environmentalism and also found that social movement journals, such together Sierra and also Earth First! have pushed forth social change by forcing issues on the public agenda and also frequently scooping tendency media coverage (Ostertag, 2006). Examples of the an effective effect of different media have the right to have in fomenting social adjust stretch back to the American Revolution, as soon as the dissident printed press provoked a trumpet to arms because that an entire nation (Armstrong, 1981; Kessler, 1984). The capacity of an alternate press come incite change depends ~ above an involved relationship v the audience that is not dependent upon caustic commentary that deserve to be check out as derisive towards the reader.

One of the central goals of alternate media is to subvert the “hierarchy that access,” (Atton, 2002) which frequently dictates that is sourced in mainstream media content according to perceived credibility. Such techniques “emphasise first-person eyewitness accounts by participants; reworking the the populist approaches of tabloid papers to recover a ‘radical popular’ format of reporting; collective and also antihierarchical develops of organization… an inclusive, radical type of public journalism” (Atton, 2003, p. 267). This type of journalism has been dubbed “native reporting” (Atton, 2002, pp. 112–117), and has been discovered to it is in a component of politics weblogs (Matheson & Allan, 2003) and other open up publishing sources online, such together Indymedia (Platon & Deuze, 2003). The is totally open to the reader as a welcome and also inviting message without any coded language that might not be understood.

Michael Albert from the independent and also “alternative”Z Magazine, wrote “an alternative media college sees itself as part of a task to establish brand-new ways of organizing media and also social activity and it is cursed to furthering these as a whole, and also not just its very own preservation (Albert, 2006).” This an extremely important suggest of demarcation has separated how different media have covered necessary social issues differently than the mainstream press. Alternative media market the an are for journalists to “become reporters that their very own experiences, struggles and lives” (Atton & Wickenden, 2005, p. 349). However, advocates of different media argue that such personalized self-disclosure is not intended for an individual gain. It"s objective is to carry out relevant, coherent news the “is best realised v the voices that the ar itself” (Atton & Wickenden, 2005, p. 349). Such activism on the component of the ‘journalist’ is often an ext valued than any type of traditional mainstream reporting endure (Atton & Wickenden, 2005). This technique favors bystanders to occasions rather than main voices, the are generally relied top top in the tendency media (Harcup, 2003).

Atkinson (2003) discovered that alternate media made use of resistance narratives around multinational corporations. Other research has discovered that alternative media often attract from ironic “culture jamming” together a type of media to work not discovered in the mainstream press (Harold, 2004). Many researchers agree that at the most fundamental core, alternative media facilitate democratic participation and social disruption if the mainstream press avoids such social critique (Makagon, 2000). The level the audience participation search from alternative media can be as connected as volunteering ones" own time to filling out an virtual petition.

Downing (2001) argues convincingly the the finish mainstream blockage of public expression and also the necessity for alternate media to to fill the social and social gap. Blogs have arised to to fill a an are in the mediated landscape. However, it remains uncertain as to whether that space is truly an alternate to tendency media. Vault research suggests that blogs have “moved far from timeless journalism"s modernist method to embody a form of postmodern journalism” (Wall, 2005, p. 154). This research intends to explore whether the postmodern journalism of existing event blogs draws from attributes inherent to alternate media or indigenous something more akin to their mainstream counterparts. Therefore, this research explores the following research question:

R1: space the political current event blogs sampled in this study a type of alternative media?

Method

This study uses both crucial discourse and also content analysis. The content evaluation follows a deductive approach by an initial defining the variables to search for and also then proceeding with a an extensive examination. When a drawback come this technique is the one may not uncover all the variables or frames present, these studies deserve to be quickly replicated and also a solid benefit the this method is the capacity to detect subtle differences between media (Semetko & Valkenburg, 2000). The content analysis depended on frequencies, percentages, one-way chi-square tests and changed residuals.

After quantitatively coding the blogs, an organic expedition of narrative will certainly be undertaken. In line v the previous work of Gamson (1992), this deductive approach very first begins through a loose, preconceived idea that the discursive facets that may exist in content and then slowly proceeds in an effort to reveal narratives utilized that may not have been considered. This studies have the right to be difficult to replicate and are fairly labour intensive (Semetko & Valkenburg, 2000). However, together an evaluation of narrative permits for a more facility and detailed understanding. By combine content evaluation with discourse analysis, this study aims to acquire both breadth and also depth in the subsequent analysis.

Content Analysis

Sampling

A substantial directory of present event blogs just does not exist, therefore a random sampling of blog is not possible and is not the score of this research. This work intends to capture and analyze a particular moment in time. Given the ephemeral nature that blogs, any kind of recently generated substantial list the ‘important’ blogs would by an interpretation be historical. This study aims to be as contemporary as possible and because of this draws its sample indigenous Tailrank, a little startup company based in mountain Francisco. Tailrank is a memetracker that scours countless blogs and applies an progressed algorithm the “takes into consideration linking behavior, the text of the post, web links in typical with various other users, text relevance, weblog ranking, past performance, and various other factors for recommendations” (Tailrank, 2008) come instantly create a perform of the most famous blogs in the blogosphere at that moment.

Since the most renowned blogs space constantly changing, this research went through all of the ‘top 100 short articles for the last week’ ~ above Friday, 18 June 2008. Because that each of this posts, the very first and last 5 blogs were recorded, definition that two lists to be generated. One list had 500 (5 blogs x 100 story posts) that what to be ranked through Tailrank together the most well-known blogs top top the Internet and another list consisted of the 500 least famous blogs or those blogs the did not have actually many typical links with other users, message relevance, high weblog rankings, etc. The 2 most frequently found blog from the list of 500 renowned blogs were selected for inclusion right into the study. These to be crooksandliars.com (found 61 times) and also thinkprogress.org (found 83 times). Technorati offers further evidence of the popular of this blogs. ~ above 29 July 2008, Crooks and Liars obtained an authority ranking the 4,544 from Technorati and also Think Progresss obtained a ranking of 6,314. These numbers stand for the number of blogs linking come the website in the last 6 months and also places both of this blogs in the optimal 10 most well-known political blogs.

Blogs that were only found once ~ above Tailrank"s list of nonpopular blogs to be separated into a different category. Two blogs were then randomly selected native this list. Initially, one of the selected occurred to it is in politically liberal and the other happened to be politically conservative. Offered that the two most renowned blogs were both taken into consideration to it is in politically left, it was decided that because that consistency sake, the 2 least well-known blogs should additionally be the same. Therefore, an additional two blogs to be randomly selected. Eventually, the least renowned blogs had were oliverwillis.com and the-osterley-times.blogspot.com, both represented as liberal. Their authority ranking indigenous Technorati to be 708 and also 135, respectively.

Each blog was tape-recorded at the same time every day because that 7 days. The period of 7 days to be purposeful given the ethereal–and plentiful–nature of the blogosphere. This research study aimed to examine a specific duration in time. Therefore, one expansive longitudinal period of evaluation was no sought. The duration of analysis had to allow for enough time to conference a plentiful sample to examine and also enough contents to finding overlap in content between blogs. After examining a subsection of blog on the an initial day the research, that was identified that 7 days would provide a adequate sample because that study. The entire blog, rather than only a portion of the site, was the unit the analysis.

Coding Categories

Every attach found in ~ the text of every blog to be coded. The links were coded in ~ to the complying with categories: itself, obvious like-minded blog, evident opposite-minded blog, blog v unknown political position, tendency news source, tendency news blog, different news source, alternative news blog, tendency pop society source, nonprofit organization, petition, an individual website, federal government or various other (see Appendix for an operationalization of coding categories).

statistical Analysis

Significance was measured v chi square p worths and strong adjusted residual scores, or the difference in between expected and also observed counts the demonstrates actual effects of this relationship. Solid effects the a certain case of one variable on a particular case of one more variable were uncovered if not much more than 20 percent of the cells have expected values much less than 5 (Krippendorff, 2004). Within this cells, readjusted residual scores that depart markedly native the design of independence (well over +2 or below −2) demonstrated added strength in relationships and also suggested a directionality the the relationship.

Intercoder reliability

Intercoder dependability was measured with the Cohen"s kappa measure of agreement and also Scott"s Pi. Both actions gage the agreement between two coders and “can be provided as a proxy because that the validity that constructs that emerge from the data (Kurasaki, 2000, p. 179).” Scott"s pi, which is specifically suited come nominal data, removes the level that ‘expected agreement" as result of chance. Solid intercoder dependability measures imply that the coding scheme supplied may also be beneficial for validating conclusions from other studies relying top top those very same coding categories.

Discourse Analysis

After this quantitative stage, a qualitative discourse and also narrative analyses will certainly be introduced to help attend to the research concerns at hand. As soon as applicable, particular strategies of signification (Mitra & Cohen, 1999) will be determined in news content. As Foucault (1989, 1991) argued, discourses are inevitably not about a certain person, place, or thing. Rather, discourses are part of a facility network that identity and also power relations. This research study engages in a an essential discourse evaluation in the hopes of knowledge the language offered and also in who interests and to what possible effects the language may have in society (Matheson, 2005). Illustration from the original job-related of Fairclough (1995) and the later work that Atton and Wickenden (2005), this methodology examines the interdependencies between textual, discursive and social practices.

This vital approach likewise involves a systematic procedure and examination of vocabulary choices, questioning the selection of feasible vocabulary items that can have been utilized otherwise (Matheson, 2005). Given that tendency media has actually been discovered to report on modern issues in very particular ways, this research questions what different discourses can have been provided in present event blogs. Together Hodge and Kress (1993) argue, the use of terms such together “freedom fighter” rather than “terrorist,” for example, demonstrates just how social forces engage the text. Within any type of news text, over there are unlimited linguistic options available for description. Yet, some room chosen much more than others (Kress, 1983). This discursive viewpoints are used, presumably, for a publisher come relate much better to their audience (Reah, 2002). Therefore, they are instructive in evaluating how present event blog conceptualize their readers.

Findings

Content analysis Results

The Cohen"s kappa measure of agreement in between two coders to be 94.7 percent because that the variables measured. Values of kappa greater than .75 indicate excellent agreement past chance alone and suggest a strong standard measure of integrity (Riffe, Lacy & Fico, 1998). Scott"s Pi to be computed at .921, representing the intercoder agreement after chance has actually been removed.

Mainstream associations

Within a 7-day duration 1,712 hyperlinks to be recorded: Think Progress had 828 hyperlinks in ~ the text of your blog; Crooks and Liars had actually 565 hyperlinks; Oliver Willis had 215; and also The Osterley Times had 104. There to be a total of 344 articles during the seven-day time duration sampled. Think Progress had actually 144 posts; Crooks and also Liars had actually 112 posts; 57 posts in Oliver Willis and also The Osterley Times had actually 31 posts.

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The present event blogs sampled for this study rarely linked to alternative news sources. A one-way chi-square check revealed this relationship to be far-reaching (p = .000), through no cells having actually an supposed frequency of much less than 5. In total, there were 29 web links (1.7 percent) to alternate news sources and also 18 links (1.1 percent) to alternative news blogs (p = .000). This is in contrast to 620 links (36.3 percent) to mainstream news sources (p = .000); 65 links (3.8 percent) to tendency news blogs (p = .000); and also 66 web links (3.9 percent) to mainstream pop society sources (p = .000). (Figure 1) Therefore, hypothesis one, which proclaimed that politics news blog will connect to different news sources much more than to mainstream news sources, was rejected.