This guide from the FAO provides little scale or backyard farmers information on how ideal to feed your pigs consisting of diets, equipment and regime.

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Editor’s note: The contents on this page was written particularly for farmer in Nepal. While much of the information will it is in applicable elsewhere, please be conscious that every country has its own rules concerning feeding animals, e.g. Food waste. You should ensure your techniques are in heat with main regulations in your very own region.

Good feed is essential for growth, body maintenance and also the manufacturing of meat and milk. You deserve to use locally accessible feeds that are much less expensive, but can be nutritionally finish when properly prepared. In fact, pigs can be fed well using just kitchen scraps from a family’s household. The nutritional requirements of pigs have the right to be separated into 6 categories or classes. These space water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals.

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What can you feed her pig?

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Commercially ready swine rations native grain, fruit and also vegetable indigenous markets

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Vegetable, fruit or bread scraps that have been no in call with animal products or byproducts if they are effectively cooked.

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Restaurant leftovers, food transporter and disposers that food waste assets if lock are correctly cooked.

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Forest assets including wild vegetables, wild bananas, wild cola – cassia, yam, forage grasses etc. If lock are appropriately cooked.

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Alcohol distilling residues: local alcohol have the right to be made from millet, rice, maize, sweet potato, banana, etc. If castle are appropriately cooked.

What friend shouldn’t feeding to your pig

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Any meat products: includes pies, sausage rolls, bacon and cheese rolls, pizza, salami and other delicatessen meats and also table scraps without suitable cooking and screening.

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Any carcass or component of a carcass of any kind of mammal or bird (raw and uncooked). This includes any type of meat blood, offal, hide or feathers. Pigs the feed on carcasses are also at danger of contracting illness that are transmittable to humans.

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Any fish products and bones.

The excreta (droppings) of any mammal or bird

Any problem that has actually come into call with a prohibited problem via collection, warehouse or deliver in a contaminated container, such together meat trays and take far food containers.

Household, commercial or commercial waste, which includes restaurant waste the hasn’t been correctly cooked and also screened.

Formulation feed

Creep feed

Creep feeding is the infant piglets’ an initial and most crucial dry food. It consists of 20% protein that is highly fortified with milk by-products and is available in small, chewable, very palatable pellets for easy digestion.A mix of protein source, milk replacer, vitamins, amino acids and rich feed ingredients renders this complete feed the appropriate start because that young healthy and balanced piglets.Feed ingredients in to decrease order: corn, soya bean meal, barley, wheat bran, vegetables protein, oilseeds extracts, fat acids, feed phosphate, pig vitamins, and trace minerals.Creep feed (about 20g every piglet per day) or a good home-made mixture through fine rice bran, broken rice and also milled maize grains. Clean drinking water must constantly be available.

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Feeds should meet the animal’s needs for maintenance, growth and also reproduction. Great pig feed contains sufficient energy, protein, minerals and vitamins. Rice bran, broken rice, maize, soya-beans, cassava, vegetables and also distillers’ residual water are regularly used in pig feed.

Distillery rubbish is much appreciated in timeless pig husbandry, particularly for pigs. The is advisable, however, not to provide this high valued feeding to pregnant and lactating sows or to piglets and weaners, simply because of the alcohol contents in the waste.

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Rice Bran: This is very suitable for pig feeding. It consists of 11% protein and can be offered as the key ingredient in most feeds. Rice bran deserve to be blended with other feeds come 30 - 45%. However, it deserve to be retained for no longer than 1 month due to the fact that it will end up being mouldy.

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Broken Rice: This is also really suitable because that pig feeding. It have the right to be blended with various other feeds as much as 15 - 20%. Damaged rice contains around 8% protein.

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Maize: Thisis a very great animal feed. It includes up to 65% carbohydrates and also 9% protein. It have the right to be mixed and cooked with various other feeds, yet not an ext than 40% in the mix ration

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Soybeans: This is a crop that has actually a high nutritional value and is very great for pig feeding. It includes 38% protein (very high), and should it is in dried, milled, or fine cooked in combination with various other feedstuffs favor rice bran, broken rice and also maize.

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Wheat Bran: Thisis an especially rich in diet fibre and contains significant quantities the carbohydrate, protein, vitamins, and also minerals. Wheat Bran is widely provided as a significant component in pet feed. It has Protein 14% - 16%, Fat Max. 9.5%, crude oil Fibre 8 - 10% and carbohydrate as much as 25%.

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Ipil: Leucaena and Acacia are traditional, locally accessible tree-crops, and also the leaves are rich in protein. ~ drying, they deserve to be mixed and also fed come pigs with other feeds.

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Root Crops: Thesecan be combined with other feeds increase to about 10 - 20% (never an ext than 30%). First, the chop should it is in peeled and also washed and also then sliced, dried and ground before use. It should not it is in fed come pigs together raw cassava with the skin, because of the toxicity substances present. The sliced and also dried cassava have the right to be preserved for longer.

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Fruits: Fruits damaged during transportation, storage and also handling are provided as supplementary feeds because that pigs through boiling and also mixing with other feed such together rice bran, broken rice and also maize. Lock can additionally be provided fresh. Perfect fruits include: bananas, papaya, apples, pears, and also melons.

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Vegetables: Vegetables damaged throughout transportation, storage and also handling are likewise used as supplementary feeds for pigs by boiling and mixing with various other feeds such together rice bran, damaged rice and maize. Castle can additionally be provided fresh. Perfect vegetables include: cabbage, lettuce, spinach, morning glory, sweet potato vine, cola-cassia (needs boiling), pumpkin, guords, and also water hyacinth.

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Green Soya p plant: A reach source of vegetable protein.

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Cola-cassia/Pandalu: Leaves and stems are fairly a good local protein resources for pigs. Leaves contribute 20% of the dietary dry matter and 46% of the crude oil protein ~ cooking. It is additionally a rich resource of calcium, phosphorus, iron, Vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin and also niacin, i m sorry are important constituents that a pig’s diet. The fresh tuber has around 20% dry matter, while the new petiole has actually only about 6% dry matter. Leaves and also stems have a an excellent composition v high crude oil protein contents (16.51-18.20 % DM basic), and are used as neighborhood protein resource for pig production.

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Chayote: Both the fruit (vegetable) and also the seed are rich in amino acids and vitamin C, potassium, phosphorus and calcium. Fruit is very low in calories (12 calories per 100 g top top average), and chayote has 0.5% protein, 0.2% lipids and also 2% sugars.

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Banana Stem: The best way of feeding fresh environment-friendly banana or plantain fruit is come chop them and sprinkle some salt on the slices since the fruits are very low in essential nutrients. Cattle and pigs relish this material. For ensiling purposes, the chopped green bananas or plantains are desired to the ripe fruit which shed some of their dry issue and, in particular, their sugars throughout ensiling. Similarly, green fruits are much more easily dried than ripe fruit which are very difficult to completely dehydrate.

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Pumpkin: Pumpkin is a great source the the vitamin B group, when a big proportion of these vitamins is lost during the preparation of the protein concentrate and isolates.

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Bottle gourd: over there are important nutritional values in 100 grams of bottle gourd, such as:

power - 12 kacl moisture - 96g Protein - tiny Fat - tiny Carbohydrates - 2g Fibre - 1gCalcium - 20mg steel - little Phosphorus - 10 mg

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Winter melon (Wax Gourd, White Gourd, Ash Gourd): The Winter Melon is a very big gourd that can prosper to up to 50lbs or more. It establishes a waxy coating as soon as it matures. Unopened, the winter melon can commonly be save on computer for up to 12 months, however after the is reduced open, it have the right to only it is in stored because that a single week. that contains very low saturated Fat and Cholesterol, and also is also a good source the Thiamin, Iron, Magnesium and also Manganese, and also a very good source of diet Fibre, Vitamin C, Riboflavin, Zinc, and also is an extremely high in Sodium.

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Clover: Clover’s sodium content is approximately 0.05%. Crude protein level in the dry matter are around 25%. Phosphorus is 0.3%, and dry issue digestibility is up to 75%.

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Stylo: Stylo is affluent in protein, and its DCP levels selection from 17 - 24% in environment-friendly leaf and 6 - 12% in the stem. That grows well in negative soil and can it is in fed directly to pigs without gift cooked (unlike woodland plants).

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Alfalfa: Althoughlow in fibre, alfalfa is palatable come pigs and being quickly digestible. That is the ideal nutritional package you have the right to put into the rations you use to feed her livestock, dairy cattle, poultry or pigs. It likewise contains a blend of 47 nutritional elements, and provides one of nature’s many liberal balances that vitamins, minerals and also amino acids.

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Berseem: It is very palatable and also is relished by all livestock. There has never to be a case of bloat report if accidentally provided an excess amount. It includes 18 – 28% crude oil protein.

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Mulberry: The protein contents 89 g/kg dry matter in the new foliage of mulberry leaves is well utilized by farming pigs that space fed a basal diet of damaged rice.

Traditional feed Processing

Different feeds are mixed and boiled to make pig feed much more palatable. There space 2 varieties of classic processing:

Mixing all the different feeds with each other (rice bran, damaged rice, crushed maize and soya, dried legume leaves, etc.) in proportion and giving it directly to the pigs.
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Cooking the different raw products together to boost digestibility, and also to failure toxins from some feeds such as raw cola-cassia, banana stem, maize and also soya grains, beans, kitchen waste, forage crops, and also similar.Food rubbish Feeding to Swine is also commonly known as garbage Feeding or Swill. Food garbage or garbage fed to swine should be cooked and sterilized properly.
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Feeding woodland Products

Pig feeding can additionally be prepared with forest products (wild vegetables, wild bananas, wild cola – cassia etc). In ~ the exact same time, food waste can be provided as well. Currently, growing legumes as feed for town pig production is having a big impact top top the livelihoods the rural households in Nepal.

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Feeding Alcohol Distilling Residues

Local alcohol have the right to be made from millet, rice, maize, sweet potato, bananas, and also similar. Most popular for pig feeding is distillery wastes from millet. It need to be blended with other feeds such as rice bran and also broken rice/maize.

Distillers’ residues can be fed come fattening pigs, however not come pregnant or lactating sows. Yet, these animals require a high top quality of feed and therefore distillery waste demands to be replaced by various other high high quality feed such as commercial feeds.

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The following mixing ratio is generally used in combination with distillery waste: Rice bran/Wheat bran (2 kg), broken rice (1 kg), and Distillers’ residual water (5-10 kg) and other locally obtainable agricultural by-products.

Local alcohol can be made from millet, rice, maize, sweet potato, yam (Phul Tarul), banana, etc. Most famous for pig feeding is distillery waste from millet and also rice, protein contents ranged from 17 to 33% (mean that 23%) in dry matter basis. It should be combined with other feeds such together rice bran, wheat bran, maize/millet flour, and also broken rice etc.

Distillers’ residues deserve to be fed come fattening pigs, yet not come pregnant or lactating sows. Yet, these pets require high top quality of feed and also therefore distillery waste requirements to be changed by other high quality feed like commercial feeds.

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Daily feeding Requirements

Dry/pregnant Sows and Gilts: Dry sows and also gilts need 2.5kg a work of sow and also weaner meal. Give an extra 1kg/day one week before serving gilts and sows and one main after service. Give lactating sows 2.5 kg a job of sow and also weaner enjoy the meal for maintenance and 0.25 kg a job extra for each piglet gift suckled.Boars: provide boars 2.0 kg a day. If the boar is regularly used boost this to 2.5 kg.Piglets: give creep pellets 0.5 - 1.0 kg a job from day 7 approximately weaning time (21 days) per piglet. The feed need to be mixed with sow and weaner meal the last one week before weaning.Feeding that Growing and also Finishing pigs: Pigs weaned at 3 - 5 weeks of 11 - 13 kg body weight should continue being fed on the starter diet until they with 18 kg live weight. Pigs weaned at 7 weeks or older may be switched slowly to sow and also weaner diet.

For growing or finishing pigs all ration transforms should be made gradually. If this is not feasible the feeding level of the brand-new diet must be low till the pigs end up being accustomed to it.

Where post-weaning scours room a significant problem, limited feeding throughout the first week after ~ weaning might reduce the occurrences of scours.

For treatment in situation of an outbreak of scouring, medication v drinking water is preferable because sick pigs walk off feed.

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NB: once feeding animals any sudden alters can result in loss of production. Thus feed alters should it is in as gradual as possible.

Feeder Trough Size

The feeding trough must be firmly anchored come the floor to protect against overturning and also wasting the feed. The dimension of the feeding trough for different ages and purposes is provided in the table below.

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Good pig appetite is important. Pigs will eat more fresh clean feed 보다 feed the is contaminated, stale or moldy. Come ensure appropriate intake that nutrition clean feeding troughs daily. Enough feeder space is necessary, so that each pig deserve to eat what it desire every day. On many farms feed waste is 15% or more, however it need to be avoided as much possible.

Pigs must additionally be fed ~ above time, because it renders them familiar to the feeding regime. Pigs should be fed according to your sizes and ages. Troughs have to be anchored so they can not be turned over.

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Drinkers

The feeding trough can additionally be offered to supply water. At large farms automatically drinkers are provided (called bowls or nipples).

All pigs need enough clean drink water.

A pregnant sow calls for 10 - 12 litres that water every day.A lactating sow requires 20 – 30 litres that water every day.A cultivation pig calls for 6 - 8 liters that water per day.A boar calls for 12 - 15 liters the water per day.

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By no providing sufficient water for her pigs friend will reduce their day-to-day feed intake. Ample clean water must be obtainable for her pigs to drink at every times.