The scientific research of Seaweeds

By Ole Mouritsen

Marine macroalgae benefit people culturally, industrially, nutritionally, and ecologically.

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Biology Botany
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Macroalgae are, loosely speaking, those that have the right to be seen v the naked eye. Many of them are classified as benthic, i m sorry is to say that they fasten us to the seabed. But there is no need to be therefore formal in talking around benthic macroalgae. We typically refer come them all the moment by the solitary term seaweeds, and we manipulate them far more often than most civilization realize.



Placing Hana-Tsunomata seaweed in champagne causes the frond to rehydrate and unfold if dancing on the bubbles.

From Seaweeds: Edible, Available, and also Sustainable by Ole G. Mouritsen.


Macroalgae come in a an excellent many varieties. Some of the larger ones have complicated structures v special tissues that administer support or deliver nutrients and also the assets of photosynthesis; others are made up of cell that room all essentially identical. The smallest seaweeds are only a few millimeters or centimeters in size, while the biggest routinely flourish to a size of 30 to 50 meters. Seaweed cells likewise come in various sizes; in many types they deserve to measure one centimeter or more. These big cells have the right to contain number of cell nuclei and organelles in order come ensure the the manufacturing of protein is enough to sustain the duty of the cell and also the rapid expansion of the seaweed together a whole.

Macroalgae space classified into three significant groups: brown algae (Phaeophyceae), green algae (Chlorophyta), and also red birds (Rhodophyta). As every one of the groups contain chlorophyll granules, their characteristic colors are derived from various other pigments. Plenty of of the brown algae space referred to merely as kelp.

It is estimated that 1,800 various brown macroalgae, 6,200 red macroalgae, and also 1,800 green macroalgae are found in the maritime environment. Back the red algae are an ext diverse, the brown ones room the largest. Even though us talk about the three groups of seaweeds as if they were closely related, this is true just to a boy extent. Because that example, brown algae and red birds belong to two different biological kingdoms and also are, in a sense, much less related come each various other than, for example, a jellyfish is come a bony fish. Environment-friendly algae and red birds are more closely related to higher plants 보다 brown algae are and, together with diatoms, lock evolved earlier than brown algae.

Most species of seaweeds have actually soft tissues however some are, to a better or lesser degree, calcified, an instance being calcareous red algae. The expansion of the calcium layer is precisely regulated by the polysaccharides that are current on your cell walls.



Seaweeds, particularly the brown algae, room generally comprised of 3 distinctly recognizable parts. At the bottom there is a root-like structure, the holdfast, which, together the name implies, secures the organism to its habitat. That is commonly joined by a stipe (or stem) to the leaf-like blades. The seaweed deserve to have one or much more blades, and also the chisels can have different shapes. In part cases, the knives have a distinct midrib. Photosynthesis takes ar primarily in the blades and also it is, therefore, necessary that the stipe is long sufficient to place them sufficiently close come the surface of the water to reach the light. Some varieties have air-filled bladders, a familiar sight top top bladder wrack, i beg your pardon ensure their access to irradiate by holding castle upright in the water. This bladders can be as much as 15 centimeters in diameter. Due to the fact that brown algae room so lot like plants, they are often confused with them.

Not every seaweeds share this structures. Part smaller types have a tissue that has a less distinctive structure, consisting only of filaments that cells, which might or may not be branched. But practically all ranges have found their place, one means or another, into the human being diet.

Originally, seaweeds intended because that human consumption were built up along the seashore or picked in the sea. Those that were consumed fresh to be harvested locally and consumed in quick order. As seaweeds have the right to be dried and, in that form, preserved for a long time and also transported easily, they were recognized beforehand as a an useful foodstuff and also became a trading commodity. Over time, the need for seaweeds, because that a multiplicity the purposes, flourished so an excellent that for numerous centuries they have been proactively cultivated, particularly in the far East.


The complicated Life the a Sea Green


The life history of birds is complicated, and this is what yes, really differentiates them native plants. In fact, macroalgae can pass with life stages so distinctive that, in the past, they have been mistake for different species. Seaweed reproduction can involve either solely sexual or asexual phases, when some species display an alternation that generations that involves both in succession. In the former, the seaweed produce gametes (egg and also sperm cells) with a single set of chromosomes and, in the latter, spores containing 2 sets that chromosomes. Some species can also reproduce asexually by fragmentation—that is, the chisels shed tiny pieces that build into completely independent organisms.



Some species solve the match-making difficulty by equipping the reproductive cells v light-sensitive eyespots or v flagella so the they have the right to swim. Others exploit chemical substances, well-known as pheromones or sex attractants. These space secreted and also released by egg cells and serve to tempt the sperm. Some types (for example, the large seaweed masses in the Sargasso Sea) secrete massive quantities that slime, i m sorry ensures that the egg and sperm cell stick close to each other and also do no go astray.



The red alga Porphyra has an especially facility life cycle, through a fascinating element that merits additional discussion since of the interesting background associated with its discovery. The relates directly to the growing of Porphyra for the production of nori, i m sorry is especially widely provided in Japanese cuisine—most familiarly, as for the wrapping because that maki rolls (See the cooking recipes in the inscription for the nori roll picture below.).

The knives used in nori production grow while the seaweed is in the generation the reproduces sexually, return the biology itself deserve to actually develop asexually from spores. The chisels produce egg cells and sperm cells. The egg cells continue to be on the blades, whereby they are fertilized by the sperm cells. The fertilized eggs have the right to then type a new kind of spores, which room released. These spores germinate into a calcium-boring filament phase that can prosper in the shells of dead bivalves, such as oysters and also clams, in the procedure developing point out that provide the biology a pinkish sheen.

Until the 1940s that was thought that this sex-related stage was in reality an completely separate species of alga, provided the name Conchocelis rosea. There is no an expertise of the true life cycle, it was not possible to thrive Porphyra properly in aquaculture. No one knew whereby the spores because that the totally grown Porphyra originated. This was the key reason for the recurring difficulties experienced by the Japanese seaweed fishers in their attempts to maintain Porphyra in a predictable manner.


The Natural history Museum is located in southern Kensington, a stylish area the London, just a short walk from Harrods room store. One ideologies the building, which is collection above street level and is accessed by an imposing staircase leading to the monumental entrance doors, through a feeling of humility. A dried sample the winged kelp (Alaria esculenta) is housed in London’s Natural history Museum. The kelp is now sold as a health food, occasionally under the surname Atlantic wakame.Somewhat naively, I had gone to see what the museum had by means of seaweed specimens in its factory collections. It conveniently turned out, come my great disappointment, the there to be none ~ above display.Back in mine room in ~ the Royal society with a watch of St. James Park and large Ben, where I to be lucky enough to it is in lodged because that a few days, I instantly started calling around at the museum and also managed to acquire the algae curator herself, Jenny Bryant, ~ above the phone.When Jenny met me in the front hall of the Natural history Museum, she take it me as much as the top story and also through an undistinguished door with a authorize over it that reads Cryptogamic Herbarium. ~ above the other side that the locked door is a endowment trove to which the general public has actually no access. This is an huge room v cabinet ~ cabinet whereby the algal collections are neatly ordered behind beautiful brown wooden doors that safeguard the vulnerable specimens from exposure come light. I was displayed examples the the collections’ share of green, red, and also brown macroalgae. Over there are around 600,000 seaweed specimens in all, with the oldest dating indigenous the 1700s. To my an excellent surprise and delight, the very first folio the Jenny pulled the end was indigenous the personal collection the Kathleen mary Drew-Baker, the well known researcher who unlocked the keys of the Porphyra life cycle, paving the method for the modern-day Japanese nori industry. Below I can see v my very own eyes Drew-Baker’s carefully placed Porphyra umbilicalis and also read annotations, in her very own handwriting, about classification and also where the specimen to be found. Then i was permitted to sit amongst the collections and make use of the library. Sitting alongside the old shelves and also cupboards, i soaked increase the congenial setting of this place, where time seemed to was standing still and the staff went quietly around their tasks.When i was leaving, Jenny called me the it had actually been a good day for algae, as one of their former colleagues had dropped by. I had the impression the seaweed research study is a low priority at the Natural history Museum and that just a couple of phycologists work-related on the collections. Ns exited by the small side door and also found myself ago on the big main staircase. Come think the one can pass by the modest entrance and also have no idea about what lies behind it. “Seaweed people” room friendly and also they are possessed that a peculiar, quiet enthusiasm for that unique alga come which much of their working life is devoted. And they love come share their enthusiasm for it with others who room interested in the subject. I left the museum in a an excellent mood, through my very own seaweed obsession recharged.


It was an English alga researcher, Dr. Kathleen mar Drew-Baker, who uncovered the mystery of the sexual segment that the Porphyra life cycle. Drew-Baker was unaware the the challenges of the seaweed fishers. Instead, she was preoccupied with shedding irradiate on the secret of why the varieties of laver (Porphyra umbilicalis) the grew around the coast of England seemed to disappear during the summer, reappearing again only toward the finish of autumn. She tried without success to germinate spores the she had collected.

Finally, after nine years’ precious of initiative to prosper the alga in light- and temperature-controlled tanks, she uncovered that the spores would germinate if castle were permitted to settle on a sterilized oyster shell. Lock would also grow on one eggshell. A few months later, the resulting small, roseate sprouts created their very own spores that, in turn, might germinate and develop into the well-known big purple laver.

Drew-Baker released her outcomes in 1949. Soon thereafter the Japanese phycologist Sokichi Segawa recurring her experiment using neighborhood varieties of Porphyra and found the they behaved in the same way as the English species. The secret was solved and the outcomes were easily put to usage in Japan. Drew-Baker passed away at a relatively young period in 1957, supposedly unaware that her curiosity and seminal research had actually laid the structures for the development of the most valuable aquaculture industry in the world.


Lighting the s Garden


As in eco-friendly plants, photosynthesis allows seaweeds to transform sunlight right into chemical energy, which is climate bound by the development of the street glucose. Glucose is the structure block for the seaweeds’ carbohydrates and, in ~ the same time, an energy resource for the manufacturing of various other organic substances the the seaweeds require in order come grow and to bring out life processes. The photosynthetic procedure uses up carbon dioxide, i m sorry is thereby gotten rid of from the water. In addition, phosphorous, a variety of minerals, and especially nitrogen room required. Oxygen is formed as a by-product, dissolved in the water, and then released into the atmosphere. This by-product is of an essential importance because that those organisms that must, favor humans, have oxygen to have the ability to breathe. Photosynthesis deserve to even, come a certain extent, be carried out as soon as seaweeds space exposed come air and also partially dehydrated.


Sea vegetables Harvest in MaineIn 1971 Shep Erhart and his mam Linette began to harvest seaweeds at Frenchman’s only in Maine, where they had resolved after providing up the idea of becoming farmers. They now run Maine coast Sea Vegetables, a company which has actually its very own building and 20 employees who transform the in your ar harvested seagrass into much more than 20 various products.The raw material for this service is delivered by around 60 seaweedharvesters who work-related along the coastlines of Maine and also Nova Scotia, where algae are discovered in abundance. Shep trains the harvesters himself. It is that utmost importance to him the they know the principles of collecting the different species of naval algae sustainably so that they execute the least harm to the environment.Maine shore Sea vegetables processes around 50 tons of dried seaweeds annually, the which around 60 percent is the dulse because that which the company is particularly famous. Eating dulse is an old heritage in Maine, carried to the shores by inhabitants from Wales, Ireland, and Scotland. Ns have come to be a an excellent fan of their applewood exhilaration dulse; i eat it together if it were candy.When dried dulse is lugged to the factory, it is sorted by hand, and also epiphytes, little crustaceans, and bivalves room picked off. The bone-dry dulse is put in a sealed room come reabsorb some moisture and then left come ripen because that a couple of weeks. Throughout ripening, the seaweeds’ enzymes tenderize the knives so that they come to be softer and much more flavorful. In strictly sealed packages, the chewy chisels have a shelf life of about a year.

From Seaweeds: Edible, Available, and Sustainable by Ole G. Mouritsen.


During the night, as soon as the irradiate level is low, photosynthesis stops and also the seaweeds begin to take it in oxygen, burn glucose, and also give turn off carbon dioxide. Under regular conditions, photosynthesis is the dominant process, allowing the algae to construct up your carbohydrate content. Come the degree that lock have accessibility to light in the water, algae actually make use of sunlight much more efficiently 보다 terrestrial plants.


Marine algae are a much far better source of steel than foods such together spinach and egg yolks.


The red macroalgae normally grow at the best depths, commonly as much as 30 meter down, the eco-friendly macroalgae flourish in shallow water, and the brown birds in between. This circulation of varieties according to the depth of the water is rather imprecise, however; a given species can be uncovered at a place where there space optimal problems with respect to substrate, nutritional elements, temperature, and light.

In exceptionally clear water, one can uncover seaweeds growing as far as 250 meters below the surface of the sea. That is stated that the record is hosted by a calcareous red alga the was discovered at a depth the 268 meters, where just 0.0005 percent of the sunlight penetrates. Also though the waters at that depth may appear pitch-dark to person eyes, over there is still enough light to permit the alga to photosynthesize. In turbid waters, seaweeds prosper only in the top, well-lit great of water, if in ~ all.

Formerly that was assumed that seaweed species had adapted to your habitat by having pigments the were perceptible to the different wavelengths of the light spectrum. In this means they might take benefit of exactly that part of the spectrum that penetrated to the depth at which castle lived. For example, the blue and violet wavelengths reach better depths. The red birds that live in these waters must contain pigments that absorb blue and violet light and, together a consequence, show up to have actually the complementary shade red. Experiment have because shown that this otherwise elegant partnership does not always hold true. Seaweed varieties that live at the ocean’s surface ar may also contain colours that protect them native the sun’s ultraviolet light.

Given that all the substances that seaweeds require in order to make it through are liquified in the water, macroalgae, unequal plants, have actually no need of roots, stems, or genuine leaves. Nutrients and gases room exchanged directly throughout the surface ar of the seaweed through diffusion and energetic transport. In some species there is no systematic differentiation, and each cell draws its it is provided of nutrients from the bordering water. ~ above the various other hand, committed cell types and organization that assist in the circulation of nutrition within the organism can be uncovered in a variety of brown macroalgae.

Access to nitrogen is vital limiting factor in seaweed growth, specifically for eco-friendly algae. The increasing runoff right into the oceans of fertilizer-related nitrogen indigenous fields and also streams has developed favorable conditions for the expansion of algae, especially throughout the summer once it is warm and also the days are long.


Omelette (tamago-yaki) v Nori1 sheet of nori seaweed3 eggsmirin (sweet rice wine)salt and sugar1. crack the eggs into a bowl. Add a tiny salt, sugar, and mirin (optional) and also whisk whatever together lightly with a fork.2. heat a pan that has actually been greased with a small amount of fat, best one that has virtually no flavor of the own.3. pour the egg mixture into the pan a tiny at a time over short heat.4. location the nori sheet on the wooden surface and, making use of chopsticks or a wood spatula, fold the set egg mixture together on itself numerous times to develop a flat, layered omelette (tamago).5. remove the omelette indigenous the pan and press itinto form with a bamboo rolling mat, which will imprint a nice surface texture top top it.

From Seaweeds: Edible, Available, and Sustainable through Ole G. Mouritsen.


Different varieties of algae avail us of a range of methods in order come grow. In sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca), the cells every undergo division more or less randomly throughout the organism. Other species, among them several varieties of brown algae, have actually a expansion zone at the end of the stipe and at the bottom that the blade; this is where an existing blade grow and brand-new blades room formed. The oldest blades are outermost, at some point wearing down and also falling off as the seaweed ages. Together a result, the stipe have the right to be number of years old, while the knives are annuals. This expansion mechanism permits the seaweed to protect itself from coming to be overgrown by smaller sized algae, referred to as epiphytes, which close on to it.

On certain seaweed species, the epiphytes are uncovered overwhelmingly ~ above the stipes, i beg your pardon can end up being covered v them, when the knives retain a smooth surface ar as long as they room young and still growing. Finally, some types of seaweeds, such together bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus) and the bulk of the red algae, grow at the four times of the blades.

The as whole effect of seagrass on the worldwide ecosystem is enormous. It is approximated that all algae, including the phytoplankton, are jointly responsible for developing 90 percent of the oxygen in the atmosphere and up come 80 percent the the organic issue on Earth. We deserve to compare their output v that of plants by looking at the quantity of necessary carbon produced per square meter on an annual basis. Macroalgae deserve to produce between 2 and also 14 kilograms, vice versa, terrestrial plants, such together trees and grasses in temperate climates, and also microalgae have the right to generate only about 1 kilogram. The huge productive volume of macroalgae deserve to possibly be ideal illustrated through the fact that the biggest brown algae can prosper up to fifty percent a meter a day. That quantities to a pair of centimeters an hour!


Seaweeds are made up of a special combination of substances, i beg your pardon are very different from the ones frequently found in terrestrial plants and which allow them come play a distinctive duty in human being nutrition. Most notably, the mineral contents of algae is 10 times as good as that found in tree grown in soil; as a consequence, world who frequently eat seaweeds rarely suffer native mineral deficiencies. In addition, maritime algae space endowed v a wide selection of map elements and vitamins. Because they save on computer a huge volume the soluble and also insoluble diet fiber, which are either slightly, or else completely, indigestible, seaweeds also have a low calorie count.


Marine algae possess a an excellent ability to take up and also concentrate certain substances indigenous seawater. Because that example, the iodine concentration in konbu and also other types of kelp is as much as 100,000 time as great in the cells of the seaweeds as in the surrounding water, and the potassium concentration is 20–30 times greater. ~ above the other hand, the salt content is appreciably reduced than the of salt water. Depending on the species, new seaweeds are 70–90 percent water by weight. The ingredient of the dry ingredients in the different species of seaweeds can vary a great deal, but the approximate proportions are around 45–75 percent carbohydrates and also fiber, 7–35 percent proteins, much less than 5 percent fats, and a big number of various minerals and also vitamins.

Broadly speaking, the protein in seagrass contain all the vital amino acids, especially the crucial ones that cannot it is in synthesized by ours bodies and that we thus have come ingest in our food. Porphyra has the best protein contents (35 percent) and also members the the bespeak Laminariales the lowest (7 percent).

Three teams of carbohydrates are found in seaweeds: sugars, soluble diet fiber, and also insoluble dietary fiber. Numerous of these carbohydrates are various from those that consist of terrestrial tree and, furthermore, lock vary amongst the red, the green, and also the brown types of algae. The sugars, in which we encompass sugar alcohols such together mannitol in brown algae and sorbitol in red algae, can constitute up to 20 percent the the seaweeds. The seaweed cells exploit several varieties of starch-like carbohydrates because that internal power storage; again, these differ according come species. For example, the brown birds contain laminarin, i m sorry is of commercial importance together it can be fermented to make alcohol.


Soluble dietary fiber, i beg your pardon is positioned in in between the seaweed cells and also binds lock together, constitutes approximately 50 percent of the organism. Composed of three distinctive groups that carbohydrates, namely, agar, carrageenan, and alginate, fiber deserve to absorb water in the person stomach and also intestines and form gelatinous building material that help in the digestive process. Insoluble diet fiber derived from the stubborn cell wall surfaces of the seaweeds is current in lesser quantities, typically amounting to between 2 percent and also 8 percent of the dried weight. Cellulose is uncovered in all three varieties of algae and xylan (another form of complex carbohydrate) in the red and also green ones.

The primary mineral materials in seaweeds are iodine, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium, and also chlorine. Included to this are numerous important trace aspects such together zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, molybdenum, and also chromium. The mineral composition, especially, varies considerably from one seaweed species to another. Konbu contains an ext than 100–1,000 times as lot iodine as nori. ~ above average, dulse—a widely consumed red seaweed—is the poorest choice in terms of mineral and vitamin contents but, top top the other hand, that is far richer in potassium salts than in salt salts. In general, marine algae space a much much better source of iron than foodstuffs such as spinach and also egg yolks. Wealth of vitamin is present in seaweeds, namely, vitamin A, B (B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, and folate), C, and E, yet no vitamin D. (For a nutritious crispbread recipe, click the "+" sign in the picture below.)

Seaweeds save iodine, although the specific quantities again vary substantially by species. The iodine contents is dependence on where the seaweed grew and also how it has been tackled after harvest. Furthermore, the iodine is not evenly distributed, being most abundant in the growing parts and also least abundant in the blades. In particular, the brown seaweeds contain big amounts of iodine. The is not recognized for specific why brown seaweeds contain so much iodine, however this is probably linked to their volume for rapid growth. Current studies that the brown seaweed varieties oarweed (Laminaria digitata) found high concentration of inorganic iodine in the form of iodide (I¯) in the cell walls. Iodide was found to act together the main antioxidant because that this tissue. In addition, the study confirmed that the action of iodide was not accompanied through an buildup of organically bound iodine.

The background of the exploration of iodine as an aspect actually begins with seaweeds. Bernard Courtois (1777–1838), a French chemist, was working in his laboratory in 1811, extract saltpeter from seaweeds because that the production of gunpowder for Napoleon’s army. He noticed the his chemistry experiments through the seaweed ash provided rise to a violet-colored vapor that condensed as crystals top top his copper ship and, unfortunately, caused them to corrode. Courtois convinced first his French, and later his English, fellow chemists the his exploration had vital dimensions. Their work then rapidly brought about the to know of the substance that was the resource of the vapors. It turned out to it is in a previously unknown element and, together the color violet is referred to as iodes in Greek, the brand-new element was given the surname iodine.

Terrestrial plants space a poor resource of iodine, which can an outcome in iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. The accidental exploration of iodine in seaweeds is a wonderful example of just how research and an open mind top top the part of the researcher have the right to lead to results that have actually a major significance because that the economy and also for human being health.


Julie"s Crispbread with Seaweeds1/2 cup rolling oats1/2 cup flaxseed7 tbsp. Sunflower seeds7 tbsp. Pumpkin seeds2 tsp. Salt1 cup flour1 tsp. Baking powder4 tbsp. Blended seaweed granules (sea lettuce, dulse, bullwhip kelp, giant kelp, mekabu)3/4 cup water2 tbsp. Grapeseed oil1. In a bowl mix together the oats, seeds, seaweeds, salt, and also baking powder.2. include water and mix well until the dough i do not care sticky.3. division the dough right into two and place one part on a piece of baking paper.4. On height of the dough add another item ofbaking record and role the dough out together thinly as feasible between the two.5. v a knife or pizza wheel cut the optimal bakingpaper and divide the dough into squares without cutting through the bottom paper.6. eliminate the top baking document and place the dough and also the bottom document on a baking sheet.7. Repeat the procedure with the other part of the dough.8. bake the crispbread at 400° F for around 15–20 minutes until gold brown.9. after ~ cooling a couple of minutes, the crispbreadcan be broken along the scored lines.

From Seaweeds: Edible, Available, and also Sustainable through Ole G. Mouritsen.


One of the chef culprits is a chemical substance, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), which is found in red and also green algae, wherein it helps regulate the osmotic balance that the cabinet in relation to the neighboring salt water. Some researchers think the DMSP is critical antioxidant, which provides support because that the physiological functions of the algae. DMSP accumulates in those animals in the food chain that feed ~ above seaweeds.

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DMSP has actually no taste and no smell, however dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a volatile gas the is a by-product the DMSP breakdown, has actually a characteristics disagreeable odor. The is created when DMSP is oxidized in the atmosphere or when it is degraded by bacter action. It can also be exit in the course of food preparation once fresh fish and shellfish space heated. When existing in tiny quantities, DMS is the cause of what us often call “the odor of the sea,” but in large quantities it results in the disagreeable aroma that is associated with rotten seaweeds and with fish the is no much longer fresh.

DMS is the most abundant gas sulfur link emitted right into the Earth’s setting as a an outcome of organic processes. As soon as DMS is released right into the atmosphere, it, in turn, is oxidized to type particulate aerosol substances. These can cause condensation that water vapor, i m sorry brings around cloud formation and also thereby affect the weather. For this reason although we may discover its odor offensive, many scientists think the the DMS created from the decomposition of maritime algae, particularly phytoplankton, plays a an important role in the regulation that the earth’s climate.

When brown algae and also some types of red birds decay, they can reason the formation of another sulfurous gas, methyl mercaptan. This is the gas that smells favor rotten cabbage and is often added to natural gas in order to alert us to the presence. Conversely, new seaweeds, lot like a delightfully fragrant ocean breeze, have a characteristic, agreeable smell. In both situations this is as result of substances called bromophenols, i m sorry the seagrass synthesize. They are released into the air and also accumulate in ocean-dwelling fish and shellfish v their food intake.

Because there are no bromophenols in new water, fish the live in lakes and streams absence the exact same pleasant odor and taste as their saltwater cousins. That is however one more method that seaweeds contribute agreeably and meaningfully to the human diet.