C) stratum reticulumpage 153: There isn"t a stratum reticulum. The epidermis of thick skin consists of 5 layers. From deep to superficial, these layers are stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum. (Study tip: try the mnemonic BSGLC--Betty"s Skin Glows Like Candles) Note: thin skin lacks the stratum lucidum; thus, it consists of only the four major layers.
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EpidermousThe superficial layer of the skin is composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body"s natural defenses protect the skin from the effects of UV damage? A) The skin is protected by the synthesis of three pigments that contribute to the skin"s color. B) Carotene, which accumulates in the stratum corneum and hypodermal adipose tissue, is synthesized in large amounts in the presence of sunlight. C) The skin is protected by increasing the number of Langerhans" cells, which help to activate the immune system. D) Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.
D) Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.
What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn?What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn?A) catastrophic fluid lossB) infectionC) unbearable painD) loss of immune function
A) catastrophic fluid losspage 165: The immediate threat to life resulting from severe burns isa catastrophic loss of body fluids containing proteins and electrolytes.This leads to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, and then renal failure (kidney shutdown) and circulatory shock(inadequate blood circulation due to reduced blood volume). To save the patient, the lost fluids must be replaced immediately via the intravenous (IV) route.
In the skin epidermis, the four top layers are of what type?A) dendritic cellB) karatinocyteC) fibroblastD) erythrocyte
Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that the dermis has been stretched and/or torn?
The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.ex: stretch marks during pregnancy
diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermispage 152: Like all epithelia, the epidermis relies on capillaries in theunderlying connective tissue (the dermis in this case) for its nutrients.
The dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types are likely to be found in the dermis?
fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cellspage 154: Its cells are typical of thosefound in any connective tissue proper: fibroblasts, macrophages,and occasional mast cells and white blood cells.
In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. Which of the following is another vital function of the skin?
It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.Page 163: When sunlight bombards the skin, modified cholesterol moleculesare converted to a vitamin D precursor, which is transported via the blood to other body areas to be ultimatelyconverted to vitamin D, which plays various roles in calcium metabolism.
An epidermal dendritic cell is a specialized ________.A) melanocyteB) nerve cellC) phagocytic cellD) squamous epithelial cell
Which type of skin cancer appears as a scaly reddened papule and tends to grow rapidly and metastasize?A) Squamous cell carcinomaB) MelanomaC) AdenomaD) Basal cell carcinoma
A) Squamous cell carcinomaPage 164: Squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common skin cancer,arises from the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum. The lesion appears as a scaly reddened papule (small, rounded elevation) that arises most often on the head (scalp, ears, and lower lip), and hands.
If a splinter penetrated the skin into the second epidermal layer of the sole of the foot, which cells would be damaged?If a splinter penetrated the skin into the second epidermal layer of the sole of the foot, which cells would be damaged?A) lucidumB) spinosumC) basaleD) granulosum
A) lucidumPage 153: Stratum Lucidum (Clear Layer) Through the light microscope, the stratum lucidum (loo9sid-um; "light"), visible onlyin thick skin, is a thin translucent band just above the stratum granulosum, BSGLC--Betty"s Skin Glows Like Candles.
Which statement correctly explains why hair appears the way it does?A) Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.B) Perfectly round hair shafts result in wavy hair.C) Air bubbles in the hair shaft cause straight hair.D) Gray hair is the result of hormonal action altering the chemical composition of melanin.
A) Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.Page 157: If the shaft is flat and ribbonlike in cross section, the hair is kinky; if it is oval, the hair is silky and wavy; if it is perfectly round, the hair is straight and tends to be coarse.
Although the integument is a covering, it is by no means simple, and some of its functions include ________.A) the dermis providing the major mechanical barrier to chemicals, water, and other external substancesB) resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune systemC) cooling the body by increasing the action of sebaceous glands during high-temperature conditionsD) epidermal blood vessels serving as a blood reservoir
B) resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system
Sweat is secreted by ________.A) sudoriferous glandsB) mammary glandsC) ceruminous glandsD) sebaceous glands
A) sudoriferous glandsPage 160: Sudoriferous glands, which include eccrine and apocrine sweat glands, produce sweat.
Which skin-color-associated, pigment-producing cell is located in the labeled layer D?A) Merkel cellB) fibroblastC) keratinocyteD) melanocyte
D) melanocyte Melanocytes within the stratum basale produce the pigment melanin, which is deposited within the deeper layers of the epidermis.
C) ceruminous glandsPage 161: Ceruminous glands are modified apocrine sweat glands found in the lining of the external ear canal. Their secretion mixes with sebum produced by nearby sebaceous glands to form a sticky, bitter substance called cerumen, or earwax, which is thought to deter insects and block entry of foreign material.
The dermis has two major layers; which of the following constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin?A) the subcutaneous layerB) the reticular layerC) the hypodermal layerD) the papillary layer
Page 151: The dermis has two layers, the papillary and reticular, which abut one another along an indistinct boundary
Keratinocytes are an important epidermal cell because they ________.A) are able to transform from living cells to plasma membranes and still functionB) produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective propertiesC) are able to reproduce sporadically as neededD) are a powerful defense against damaging UV rays
B) produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective propertiesPage 152: The chief role of keratinocytes is to produce keratin, the fibrous proteinthat helps give the epidermis its protective properties
Which of the following terms describes the hypodermis layer?A) papillarB) epidermalC) reticularD) subcutaneous
D) subcutaneous Page 151: The hypodermis ("under the skin") layer is also referred to as the subcutaneous region.
Male pattern baldness has a genetic switch that turns on in response to ________.A) sizeB) male hormonesC) ageD) weight
B) male hormonesPage 159: True, or frank, baldness is a different story entirely. The mostcommon type, male pattern baldness, is a genetically determined, sex-influenced condition. It is thought to be caused by a delayed-action gene that "switches on" in adulthood and changes the response of the hair follicles to DHT dihydrotestosterone), a metabolite of testosterone.
Sudoriferous glands vary in distribution over the surface of the body. Which of the following is correct?A) Eccrine are the most numerous, being found primarily in the axillary regions.B) Apocrine glands are larger than eccrine, and empty secretions directly to the surface of the skin.C) Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects.D) Mammary glands are not considered a modified sweat gland.
C) Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects.Page 161: Ceruminous glands are modifiedapocrine glands found in the lining of the external ear canal. Their secretion mixes with sebum produced by nearby sebaceous glands to form a sticky, bitter substance called cerumen, or earwax, that is thought to deter insects and block entry of foreign material.
________ is an inherited condition that affects the heme pathway; it leaves the skin scarred and gums degenerated, and may have led to the folklore about vampires.A) PorphyriaB) Decubitus ulcerC) ImpetigoD) Rosacea
A) PorphyriaPage 171: An inherited condition in whichcertain enzymes needed to form the heme of hemoglobin of blood are lacking.
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Which of the following would most likely be found in the stratum spinosum?A) melanocyteB) Merkel cellC) dendritic cellD) cornified cell
C) dendritic cellPage 153: Dentritic (Langerhan"s) cells are phagocytic cells that migrate into the epidermis and are most abundant within the stratum spinosum (layer C in the figure)
Which layer of the dermis is directly below the epidermis?A) hypodermisB) reticular layerC) papillary layerD) stratum basale
C) papillary layerPage 151: The papillary layer of the dermis, which is the superficial layer of the dermis, lies just beneath the epidermis. It is a thin layer of areolar connective tissue in which fine interlacing collagen and elastic fibers form a loosely woven mat.
Hole"s Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology12th EditionDavid N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis