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Related Topics:Boron nitrideAluminum nitrideTitanium nitrideSulfur nitrideCalcium nitride...(Show more)
Nitride, any of a course of chemistry compounds in which nitrogen is combined with an facet of comparable or lower electronegativity, such together boron, silicon, and most metals. Nitrides contain the nitride ion (N3−), and, similar to carbides, nitrides have the right to be classified right into three general categories: ionic, interstitial, and covalent.
Certain metal nitrides are unstable, and most react v water to kind ammonia and also the oxide or hydroxide of the metal; however the nitrides that boron, vanadium, silicon, titanium, and also tantalum are very refractory, resistant to chemical attack, and hard—and therefore are useful as abrasives and in making crucibles.
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uranium processing: Nitride fuels
Uranium develops a mononitride (UN) and two higher nitride phases (alpha- and beta-sesquinitrides; α = U2N3 and...
Preparation that nitrides
There space two principal approaches of prepare nitrides. One is by direct reaction the the aspects (usually in ~ elevated temperature), shown here for the synthesis of calcium nitride, Ca3N2.3Ca + N2 → Ca3N2A second an approach is v the loss of ammonia by thermal decomposition of a steel amide, shown here through barium amide. 3Ba(NH2)2 → Ba3N2 + 4NH3Nitrides are likewise formed during surface hardening of steel objects when ammonia is heated to temperature usually between 500–550 °C (950–1,050 °F) because that 5 to 100 hours, depending on the depth of hardened case desired.
Another an approach used to form nitrides is the reduction of a steel halide or oxide in the visibility of nitrogen gas, as, for example, in the ready of aluminum nitride, AlN.Al2O3 + 3C + N2 → 2AlN + 3CO
Lithium (Li) shows up to it is in the only alkali metal able to form a nitride, although all the alkaline-earth metals type nitrides v the formula M3N2. These compounds, which have the right to be considered to consist of steel cations and N3− anions, experience hydrolysis (reaction v water) to create ammonia and also the metal hydroxide. The security of ionic nitrides exhibits a broad range; Mg3N2 decomposes at temperatures above 270 °C (520 °F), whereas Be3N2 melts in ~ 2,200 °C (4,000 °F) there is no decomposition.
The largest team of nitrides space the interstitial nitrides that type with the transition metals. They are comparable to the interstitial carbides, v nitrogen atom occupying the interstices, or holes, in the lattice of close-packed steel atoms. The general formulas of these nitrides are MN, M2N, and also M4N, although their stoichiometries might vary. This compounds have high melting points, are extremely hard, and also are typically opaque materials that have actually metallic lustre and high conductivities. They are commonly prepared by heating the steel in ammonia at about 1,200 °C (2,200 °F). The interstitial nitrides room chemically inert, and couple of reactions entailing them are known. The many characteristic reaction is hydrolysis, which is usually very slow (and might require acid, as does vanadium, V, in the reaction shown below), to create ammonia or nitrogen gas.2VN + 3H2SO4 → V2(SO4)3 + N2 + 3H2
Because of their chemical inertness and ability to withstand high temperatures, interstitial nitrides are advantageous in number of high-temperature applications, consisting of their usage as crucibles and high-temperature reaction vessels.
Covalent binary nitrides possess a wide selection of properties depending on the element to i beg your pardon nitrogen is bonded. Some examples of covalent nitrides are boron nitride, BN, cyanogen, (CN)2, phosphorus nitride, P3N5, tetrasulfur tetranitride, S4N4, and also disulfur dinitride, S2N2. The covalent nitrides the boron, carbon, and sulfur are disputed here.
Because boron and nitrogen together contain the same number of valence electrons (eight) as 2 bonded carbon atoms, boron nitride is claimed to be isoelectronic with elemental carbon. Boron nitride exists in two structural forms, which room analogous to two forms of carbon—graphite and also diamond. The hexagonal form, similar to graphite, has a layered structure with planar, six-membered rings of alternate boron and also nitrogen atoms stacked in such a way that a boron atom in one class is located straight over a nitrogen atom in the nearby layer. In contrast, succeeding hexagonal class of graphite are offset so that each carbon atom is directly above an interstice (hole) in an nearby layer and also directly over a carbon atom of alternating layers. Hexagonal boron nitride have the right to be prepared by heater boron trichloride, BCl3, in an excess of ammonia at 750 °C (1,400 °F). The properties of hexagonal boron nitride are in general various from those the graphite. When both space slippery solids, boron nitride is colourless and also is a good insulator (whereas graphite is black and also is an electric conductor), and also boron nitride is much more stable chemically than graphite. Hexagonal BN reacts with just elemental fluorine, F2 (forming the products BF3 and N2), and also hydrogen fluoride, HF (producing NH4BF4). The diamond (cubic) kind of BN can be ready by heater hexagonal BN to 1,800 °C (3,300 °F) under really high press (85,000 atmospheres; the push at sea level is one atmosphere) in the visibility of one alkali steel or alkaline-earth metal catalyst. Like the analogous diamond form of carbon, cubic boron nitride is exceptionally hard.
Cyanogen, (CN)2, is a toxic, colourless gas the boils in ~ −21 °C (−6 °F). It have the right to be prepared by oxidation the hydrogen cyanide (HCN). A selection of oxidizing agents deserve to be used, consisting of oxygen gas, O2, chlorine gas, Cl2, and also nitrogen dioxide gas, NO2. When NO2 is used, the product NO deserve to be recycled and also used again to produce the reactant NO2.2HCN + NO2 → (CN)2 + NO + H2O map impurities in (CN)2 show up to facilitate polymerization at high temperature (300–500 °C <600–900 °F>) to paracyanogen, a dark solid that has a polycyclic framework of six-membered ring of alternative carbon and nitrogen atoms. The cyanogen molecule, N≡C―C≡N, is linear and also flammable. It burns in oxygen to produce an extremely hot flame (about 4,775 °C <8,627 °F>).
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Sulfur forms a variety of covalent binary nitrides, but the 2 most amazing ones room tetrasulfur tetranitride, S4N4, and also disulfur dinitride, S2N2, since they are precursors to an unexplained polymer called polythiazyl, (SN)x. This polymeric sulfur nitride is unusual because, also though that is composed exclusively of two nonmetals, it exhibits some properties normally linked only through metals. The best preparation that S4N4 involves bubbling NH3 right into a cook (50 °C <120 °F>) equipment of S2Cl2 dissolved in CCl4 or C6H6.6S2Cl2 + 16NH3 → S4N4 + S8 + 12NH4Cl Tetrasulfur tetranitride creates thermochromic crystals, which are crystals that change colour through temperature. They are red at temperatures above 100 °C (210 °F), orange at 25 °C (80 °F), and colourless at −190 °C (−310 °F). The crystals space stable in air but will explode in an answer to shock or friction. The compound has actually a cage structure with a plane of 4 nitrogen atoms through two sulfur atoms over and below the plane. As soon as S4N4 vapour is pumped with silver structure at 250–300 °C (480–570 °F) and also low press (less 보다 1.0 mm Hg), an rough dimer, S2N2, deserve to be condensed. This compound has an essentially square framework with alternative sulfur and also nitrogen atoms. Like S4N4, the is perceptible to shock and also can explode when heated come temperatures higher than 30 °C (90 °F). In ~ 25 °C (80 °F), S2N2 progressively polymerizes through a ring opening system to polythiazyl, (SN)x. This rather amazing material has actually a copper colour, a metallic lustre, and the electrical and thermal conductivity the a metal. It becomes a superconductor at 0.26 kelvin (K; see superconductivity).