20 dull, dirty pennies 1/4 cup white vinegar 1 tespoon salt A clear, shallow bowl (not metal) 2 clean steel nails A clean stole screw or bolt record towels

Put the salt and vinegar in the bowl. Stir untilthe salt dissolves.Dip one penny halfway right into the liquid. Host itthere for around 10 seconds, climate pull the out. What execute you see?Dump all the pennies right into theliquid. You deserve to watch them change for the first few seconds. After thatyou won"t check out anything happen.After 5 minutes, take half ofthe pennies the end of the liquid. Placed them ~ above a file towel to dry.Take the rest of the pennies the end of the liquid.Rinse them yes, really well under running water, and put them on a document towelto dry. Write "rinsed" on the second paper towel.Put a nail and a screw into the liquid. Lean anothernail versus the side of the key so that only part of the is in the liquidAfter 10 minutes, take it a look in ~ the nails. Arethey a different shade than they were before? Is the leaning nail 2 differentcolors? If not, leaving the nails in the bowl and check on lock again in anhour or so.What"s happening come the screw? You may see lotsand lots of fizzing bubbles coming from the threads. Is the screw changingcolor? leaving it in the fluid for a while and see what happens.After around an hour, look at the pennies ~ above thepaper towels. What"s happened to the ones you rinsed? What"s occurred tothe others? What color is the document towel under the unrinsed pennies?Why walk the pennies look at dirty prior to I put them in the vinegar?Everything approximately you is consisted of of small particles referred to as atoms. Somethings are consisted of of just one sort of atom. The copper of a penny, forexample, is consisted of of copper atoms. Yet sometimes atoms of various kindsjoin to make molecules. Copper atom can combine with oxygen atom fromthe waiting to make a molecule called copper oxide. The pennies looked dulland dirty because they were covered with copper oxide.Why walk the vinegar and also salt clean the pennies?Copper oxide disappear in a mixture the weak acid and table salt-and vinegaris an acid. Girlfriend could also clean your pennies through salt and lemon juiceor orange juice, since those juices space acids, too.Why did the unrinsed pennies revolve blue-green?When the vinegar and also salt dissolve the copper-oxide layer, castle makeit much easier for the copper atom to join oxygen indigenous the air and chlorinefrom the salt to make a blue-green compound dubbed malachite.How go the nail and also the screw acquire coated through copper?To understand just how the nail and also screw acquired coated v copper, friend needto understand a little bit more about atoms. Atoms are consisted of of even smallerparticles called protons, neutrons, and electrons. Electrons and also protonsare both electrically fee particles. Electrons are negatively chargedand protons space positively charged. An unfavorable charges lure positive charges,so electrons attract protons.Whenyou put your dirty pennies in the vinegar and also salt, the copper oxide andsome that the copper dissolve in the water. That means some copper atom leavethe penny and start floating about in the liquid. But when this copperatoms leave the penny, castle leave some of their electrons behind. Ratherthan having entirety copper atoms in the liquid, you"ve obtained copper ions, copperatoms the are missing two electrons. This ions room positively charged.Now include two steel nails and also a screw come the mixture. Stole is a metalmade by combining iron, various other metals, and also carbon. As you found out whenyou cleaned your pennies, her mixture of salt and also vinegar is really goodat dissolving metals and metal oxides. When you placed the steel nail in themixture, several of the stole dissolves. Prefer the copper atoms, each of theiron atoms the dissolves leaves two electrons behind. Therefore you"ve acquired positivelycharged iron ion floating in your vinegar v the positively charged copperions.Originally, the steel nail was neutrally charged-but when the steel ionsleft your electrons behind, the nail then ended up being neg-atively charged. Andremember what we said way back at the start of this section: negativecharges lure positive charges. The an adverse charges top top the nail attractpositive charges in the liquid. Both the stole ions and the copper ion arepositively charged. The copper ion are much more strongly attracted to the negativecharge than the iron ions, so they stick to the negatively charged nail,forming a coating that copper on the steel.Why did bubbles come off the stole screw?Each water molecule is made up of 2 hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom.In an mountain (like vinegar or lemon juice), many hydrogen ions (hydrogenatoms that are missing an electron) room floating around. In the chemicalreactions in ~ the surface ar of the screw, several of these hydrogen ion joinand kind hydrogen gas. The bubbles the you view coming turn off the screw aremade that hydrogen gas.

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