Energy is everywhere and also comes in numerous forms, v the two most typical forms well-known as potential energy and kinetic energy.
You are watching: What two factors affect potential energy
though they’re an extremely different in state of just how they communicate with the physics world, lock have specific aspects that make lock complementary come one another. But to understand just how they work, you very first need to know what they room — and the definition of energy itself.
What Is Potential and also Kinetic Energy?
Before knowledge either type of energy, it’s vital to recognize what power really is. In the simplest terms, energy is the capacity to execute work, which is when a pressure is used to things and that moves<1>.
Potential energy is among the two main varieties of energy in the universe. It’s fairly straightforward, although slightly difficult to grasp intuitively: the is a kind of power that has the potential to carry out work however is not actively doing work-related or applying any force on any kind of other objects. Potential power of an item is discovered in that position, not its motion. It is the energy of position.
When objects room displaced from location of equilibrium, lock gain power that to be stored in the objects before being knocked the end of equilibrium by elastic rebound, gravity, or chemistry reactions. This is best demonstrated in an item like an archer’s bow, which stores the energy that is produced from pulling back the bowstring. The potential power stored in the pullback is responsible for the power that occurs upon release, i beg your pardon is well-known as kinetic energy.
Understanding kinetic energy is intuitively easier due to the fact that it’s much more obvious that moving things have energy.
Kinetic energy is produced when potential energy is released, spurred right into motion by gravity or elastic forces, among other catalysts.
Kinetic energy is the power of motion. When occupational is excellent on an item and the accelerates, it boosts the kinetic power of an object. The most important determinants that determine kinetic energy is the activity (measured together velocity) and also the fixed of the object in question.
While mass is a universal measurement, the activity of an object can happen in countless different ways, consisting of rotation around an axis, vibration, translation, or any mix of these and other motions<2>.
There space three subcategories that kinetic energy: vibrational, rotational, and also translational.
Vibrational kinetic power is, unsurprisingly, brought about by objects vibrating. Rotational kinetic energy is developed by relocating objects, if translational kinetic energy is led to by objects colliding through one another.
These 3 subcategories that kinetic energy consist of nearly every one of the energy in movement throughout the known universe.
What room the Differences in between Potential and also Kinetic Energy?
The main difference in between potential and kinetic power is that one is the energy of what can be and also one is the power of what is. In various other words, potential energy is stationary, v stored energy to it is in released; kinetic power is energy in motion, proactively using power for movement.
Another important difference is velocity. This measure up is the basis of kinetic energy, yet has actually nothing to carry out with potential energy. In fact, velocity is the most important part of the equation once determining the quantity of kinetic energy for any given object, and it is missing in the potential power equation<3>.
What Is the Relationship between Potential and Kinetic Energy?
Although these primary forms of power are really different, they space complementary to one another.
Potential energy always leads to kinetic energy when it is released<4>, and also kinetic energy is necessary to permit an thing to store power as potential, in one means or another. For example, a rock on the edge of a cliff does not directly need kinetic power to save the potential energy that will certainly send it under the eroding cliff face. But the act of erosion to acquire the rock to the edge calls for kinetic energy. Therefore, the rock requires it for its potential energy.
Given the these are the 2 main forms of power in the world, especially on the human being scale, there’s a continuous push and pull between potential energy and also kinetic power in everyday life.
What Are instances of Potential and also Kinetic Energy?
Although the an interpretation of both potential and kinetic power may it seems ~ pretty straightforward and also simple, it’s tho not constantly easy to tell which form of energy is present for details objects or processes.
The motion of planets roughly the sun and also other stars in the galaxy is kinetic power at work. Together they are drawn towards the huge objects in ~ the center of their corresponding orbits, due to the strong gravitational pull, they fall towards the center of the mass. This results in an orbiting activity — and all motion is a kind of kinetic energy. <5>
2) Rubber Bands
Rubber bands deserve to be classified as both potential and also kinetic energy, relying on the state of the band. When an elastic is stretched, the loaded with potential energy; as soon as released over there is a shift to kinetic energy. This is specifically true if the elastic is transporting an additional object, such similar to a rock being flung from a slingshot. <6>
Rivers space strictly kinetic power at work. The water is continuous moving, and also all that activity is constantly creating kinetic energy. The only time a river could have potential energy is if the is dammed, through the artificial reservoir storing energy to be offered when required along a hydroelectric dam. <7>
4) particular Variations
There are details variations of energy within both kinetic and potential energy classifications. While part variations, such as the potential power stored in batteries, are conveniently apparent, others space not as basic to identify.
What Is the Potential energy of an Electron?
Electrons are in motion, so they contain kinetic energy. This is among the finest examples that a nonphysical object moving kinetic energy.
However, that still feasible to discern the potential power that an electron has actually stored. To find this potential energy, it calls for a complicated formula<8>:
U(r) = -qeV(r) = -keqe2/r
The complete energy is the sum of the electron’s kinetic energy and its potential energy, i m sorry is stood for by an even more complicated formula<8>:
KE(r)+PE(r)=-½keqe2/r=(-½)(9*109)(1.60*10-19)/(5.29*10-11) J = -2.18*10-18 J
Is a Battery Kinetic or Potential Energy?
Batteries room a kind of chemistry energy, with power stored in the bond of molecules contained within the battery acid at their core. The vital word below is “stored” — an interpretation batteries space a form of potential energy, i m sorry is how all chemical energy is share <9>. Biofuels and fossil fuels space other examples of stored chemical energy.
Is electric Energy Potential or Kinetic?
Electrical energy is classified as potential energy prior to it’s released and also used in the kind of power, which is most commonly harnessed and used as electricity<10>. However, as soon as it is convert from its potential state, electric energy can end up being one the the subtypes that kinetic energy, consisting of motion or sound, among others.
Is Sound energy Potential or Kinetic?
Sound deserve to be thought about both forms of energy at the exact same time, despite the primary means we experience it is in kinetic form. Sound power in air, i beg your pardon is produced from longitudinal waves that develop motion in gas molecules, is kinetic. In solids and liquids, which lug sound lot farther than v air, this is both kinetic and potential power at work.<11>
Potential power can be broken down right into two subforms the energy. Each of these subforms are types of stored potential energy. Yet the an approach in which they room stored — and also released — are vastly different.
What Is chemical Potential Energy?
Chemical potential power is save in molecular bonds, which are additionally known together chemical bonds. As soon as these bonds space broken, the save potential power is released and gives turn off varying levels of kinetic energy, depending on the stamin of the bonds.<14>
What Is Gravitational Potential Energy?
Gravitational potential energy is save in the object due to the potential for the force of gravity to relocate it and pull it in the direction of the Earth. The lot of stored potential gravitational energy depends straight on the massive of the object and, more importantly, its height above the ground.<15>
The two subforms that potential power covered above role primarily v the two most simple fields the science. However, the device that governs potential energy in the realm of physics is much different than the device that governs in the kingdom of chemistry.
What Is Potential power in Physics?
Potential power in the realm of physics is in the type of gravitational potential energy. Heaviness is possibly the many important aspect of physics, as it is the communication of basic relativity, which the entire modern world is based upon. It is this pressure that created potential energy in physics terms.<16>
What Is Potential energy in Chemistry?
Potential power in the kingdom of chemistry is in the type of chemical potential energy. This is energy stored in molecular bonds, i beg your pardon is the communication of chemistry and also chemical reactions. Stored potential energy is released with these chemical reactions.
See more: First Names That Start With X ", Boy Names That Start With X
What are the Formulas because that Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy?
The formulas because that potential and also kinetic energy are fairly straightforward, yet they space by no way simple.
Kinetic power can be discovered using the formula: KE=12mv2m = mass (kg) v = velocity (m/s)
Gravitational potential power can be uncovered using the formula: W = m×g×h = mghm = massive (kg) g = acceleration as result of gravitational ar (9.8 m/s2) h = elevation (m)
Elastic potential power can be discovered using the formula: U=12kx2k = spring force constant x = stretch size (m)
The units offered to measure up each the these creates of energy is the very same as every the other forms of energy: the Joule (J), i beg your pardon is equal to 1 kg.m2.s-2.<17>
You have actually learned around several develops of energy — together with some pertinent examples — however there is much an ext that requirements to be spanned to completely understand the principle of energy.
However, expertise the 2 main creates of energy that penetrate not only day-to-day life, but likewise the main point of physics throughout the universe, is a an excellent starting point and set the foundation for any deeper dives into the nature of power itself.
There are only two things that absolutely should be remembered: stationary objects with stored energy have potential and also moving objects space kinetic.
Brought to you by taranergy.com
<2> Priddy B. What Is the definition of Kinetic Energy? https://sciencing.com/meaning-kinetic-energy-6646801.html. Published March 2, 2019. Accessed November 9, 2020.
<3> Work, Energy, and Power. The Physics Classroom. Https://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/energy/u5l1c.cfm. Accessed November 9, 2020.
<4> Energy: Potential and also Kinetic Energy. Infoplease. Https://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/science/physics/concepts/energy/potential-and-kinetic-energy. Accessed November 9, 2020.
<5> Fenio, B. Roll Race: A Spinning scientific research Activity. Published March 23, 2017. Https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/rolling-race/. Accessed November 15, 2020
<6> scientific research World. Elastic Energy. Https://www.scienceworld.ca/resource/elastic-energy/. Accessed November 16, 2020.
<7> university of Calgary power Education. Power from Water. Https://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/Energy_from_water. Accessed November 15, 2020.
<8> college of Tennessee, Knoxville. Electric Potential. Http://labman.phys.utk.edu/phys222core/modules/m2/Electric%20potential.html#:~:text=The%20potential%20energy%20of%20the,2.18*10%2D18%20J. Accessed November 15, 2020
<9> Dusto A. Potential Energy: What Is it & Why It problem (w/ Formula & Examples). Sciencing. Https://sciencing.com/potential-energy-what-is-it-why-it-matters-w-formula-examples-13720804.html. Released December 5, 2019. Accessed November 10, 2020
<10> U.S. Energy Information Agency. Creates of Energy. Https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/what-is-energy/forms-of-energy.php. Accessed November 15, 2020.
<11> Sound Waves and also Music – lesson 1 – The Nature that a Sound Wave: Sound as a Longitudinal wave https://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/sound/Lesson-1/Sound-as-a-Longitudinal-Wave Accessed November 15, 2020.
<12 university of Illinois room of Physics. Q&A: Kinetic and Potential. Https://van.physics.illinois.edu/qa/listing.php?id=1768&t=kinetic-and-potential#:~:text=Sound%3A%20In%20a%20solid%2C%20this,microscopic%20scale%20of%20moving%20molecules.. Accessed November 15, 2020.
<13> Solar Schools. Radiant Energy. Https://www.solarschools.net/knowledge-bank/energy/types/radiant. Accessed November 15, 2020.
<14> CK-12. Chemical Potential Energy. Https://www.ck12.org/chemistry/chemical-potential-energy/lesson/Chemical-Potential-Energy-CHEM/. Accessed November 15, 2020.
<15> Solar Schools. Gravitational Energy. Https://www.solarschools.net/knowledge-bank/energy/types/gravitational. Accessed November 15, 2020.
<16> Hyperphysics. Gravitational Potential Energy. Http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/gpot.html. Accessed November 16, 2020.
<17> Kinetic & Potential Energy. Kinetic & Potential power – web Formulas. Https://www.web-formulas.com/Physics_Formulas/Kinetic_Potential_Energy.aspx. Accessed November 9, 2020.