NUTRITION IN PROTOZOA

Protozoa obtain nutrition in many ways. Some synthesize their own food other obtain it synthesized by birds living in their cytoplasm and still others record the food. Some Protozoa lead a helminth life, generally doing no damage or very tiny harm to your hosts but occasionally cause serious diseases.

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All species of nutrition are discovered in protozoa namely holophytic nutrition, holozoic nutrition, saprozoic nutrition, mixotrophic nutrition and also parasitic nutrition. Their modes of nutrition room as follows:

Holophytic nutrition: The phytoflagellates possess chloroplasts and chromatophores to synthesize their food by photosynthesis. They use sunlight, carbon dioxide and also water together raw materials. This method of self-feeding is described as Autotrophic phototrophy. The dextrose street paramylon synthesized is properties of euglenoid flagellates.

Holozoic nutrition: most of the Protozoa have nutrition by ingesting other organisms. This setting of nutrition is claimed to be holozoic. That involves development of organelles because that food capture, ingestion, digestion, assimilation and egestion of undigested food materials. They catch their food by flagella, pseudopodia and trichites.

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Some use axopodia, reticulopodia and tentacles to traction the prey that come within your reach. In ciliates the ciliary dental apparatus is well developed for food capturing and also driving it in the direction of mouth or cytosome and then pushing it into the cytopharynx.

Pinocytosis: This method also referred to as as cell drinking entails ingestion of liquid food through invagination with the surface of the body. The pinocytosis channels are formed at some parts of the body, i m sorry enclose the liquid from the surrounding medium. The reduced ends of these channels are pinched together food vacuoles right into the endoplasm. Pinocytosis is only induced by specific active substances in the tool surrounding the cell. High molecule compounds native the external medium are absorbed by this method.

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Saprozoic nutrition: This involves the absorption of food by osmosis, with the basic body surface. Therefore this an approach is referred as osmotrophy. The food mainly is the dead organic issue rendered so by the decomposing bacteria. This sort of nutrition is uncovered in Mastigamoeba and additionally some of the colorless flagellates.

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Suctorians feeding on various other ciliates with the aid of their tentacles which have funnel ends. Every tentacle is composed of a rounded rigid main tube. As shortly as the prey is attached, the tentacles advice paralyses the prey with some hypnotoxin and also gradually sucking the human body fluids with the central tubes.

Myxotrophic nutrition: This is a mix of much more than one setting of nutrition. Plenty of protozoa utilizing photosynthesis as a method also take in some component of your diet in dissolved type by osmotrophy or solid kind by phagocytosis. The ideal examples of this sort of nutrition room flagellates like Euglena and Peranema.

Nutrition of helminth protozoa: The mechanisms offered by parasitic protozoa are nearly are similar to that of your non-parasitic protozoa. Parasites inhabiting the intestine and blood have actually a distinctive mouth with which food particles are ingested through the process of phagotrophy. The osmotrophic forms of protozoa are either coelozoic or histozoic. The coelozoic creates absorb their food by their cell surface. The histozoic forms feed top top the substances by osmotrophy. Parasitic saprozoic develops may additionally directly use the serum of their organize blood.

PARASITISM IN PROTOZOA

Parasitism is a Greek word which means eating beside one an additional (para=beside, sitos=food). Parasites room the types which live at the price of certain other species. The other animals on i beg your pardon the parasites live are referred to as as hosts. The parasites space biologically and also economically closely connected with the master throughout their life time. For this reason parasitism deserve to be identified as an association between the parasites and also their hosts. It is one association between two organisms whereby the parasite temporarily or permanently lives and also feeds in or on the human body of the host. Practically all the protozoan teams have parasitic types and the group Sporozoa is specifically parasitic.

Types of parasites

Ectoparasites: These space the parasites which inhabit the exterior surface of your hosts.

Eg: Hydramoeba hydrozena feeding on the ectodermal cells of hydra,

Icthyopthirius multifilis burying in the epidermis of freshwater fishes

Endoparasites: These room the parasites which inhabit the inner surfaces of your hosts. They may be further subdivided into the complying with types,

The parasites which dwell in the lumen the the alimentary canal of the host.

Eg: Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Isospora hominis, Balantidium coli

The parasites which reside in the mouth cavity of hosts.

Eg: Trichomonas tenax, Entamoeba gingivalis

The parasites which inhabit the genital street of the hosts.

Eg: Trichomonas vaginalis

The helminth which live in ~ the organization of hosts. These may go into the organize tissues with the skin or also from the digestive tract.

Eg: Trypanosoma, Plasmodium, Leishmania, Babesia

Hyperparasites: These are the protozoane which parasitize various other parasitic protozoans. In other words these room parasites ~ above parasites.

Eg: Zelleriella, Nosema notabilis, Sphaerospora polymorpha

Pathogenic parasites: typically the helminth protozoans space not constantly pathogenic however sometimes this parasites room pathogenic and can cause grave conditions in humans and other animals. These helminth which room causing disease are referred to as as pathogenic parasites.

Eg: Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium vivax, Trypanosoma gambiense

Host specificity

The protozoan helminth are normally host particular and in this regard two trends space seen.

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Firstly, several of the parasites like Trypanosome, Entamoeba and also Eimeria efficiently parasitize wide selection of hosts.Secondly, some parasites like Plasmodium limit themselves just to couple of specific hosts.

Transmission

Protozoan parasites room transmitted by various means to their hosts. The following are the few examples that various ways used by the protozoan parasites to reach your hosts,