Ionic Bonding and Electron Transfer

An ionic bond outcomes from the move of one electron native a steel atom come a non-metal atom.

You are watching: When sodium and fluorine combine to produce the compound naf


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds space formed in between cations and anions.A cation is formed when a metal ion loser a valence electron when an anion is formed when a non-metal profit a valence electron. Castle both accomplish a more stable digital configuration with this exchange.Ionic solids type crystalline lattices, or repeating trends of atoms, v high melting points, and are generally soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: one ionic compound which dissolves in H2O, making the resulting solution qualified of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The tendency of an atom to lure electrons come itself.cation: A positively charged ion.anion: A negatively charged ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a type of chemistry bond in which valence electrons are lost from one atom and gained by another. This exchange outcomes in a more stable, noble gas digital configuration because that both atom involved. An ionic bond is based upon attractive electrostatic forces in between two ions of the contrary charge.

Cations and also Anions

Ionic bond involve a cation and an anion. The link is developed when one atom, frequently a metal, loses an electron or electrons, and also becomes a confident ion, or cation. Another atom, typically a non-metal, is able to acquire the electron(s) to end up being a negative ion, or anion.

One example of one ionic shortcut is the development of sodium fluoride, NaF, indigenous a sodium atom and a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the salt atom loser its solitary valence electron come the fluorine atom, which has actually just enough room to accept it. The ions created are oppositely charged and are attracted to one another due to electrostatic forces.


Formation of NaF: one electron is moved from Na come F. The resulting Na+ and also F– ions space electrically attractive to each other.


At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds type lattices, are crystalline solids under typical conditions, and also have high melt points. Many of this solids are soluble in H2O and also conduct power when dissolved. The capability to conduct electricity in solution is why these substances are dubbed electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a an excellent example the this form of compound.

Ionic bonds differ from covalent bonds. Both types an outcome in the stable digital states linked with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons room shared between the 2 atoms. All ionic bonds have some covalent character, however the bigger the distinction in electronegativity between the 2 atoms, the higher the ionic personality of the interaction.


Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen explains how ionic solids form when cations and also anions are attracted.


Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is a measure up of the bond toughness in one ionic compound.


Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and the determinants that affect it


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice energy is defined as the power required to different a mole of an ionic solid right into gaseous ions.Lattice energy cannot it is in measured empirically, but it can be calculated using electrostatics or approximated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main determinants that add to the magnitude of the lattice power are the charge and radius of the external inspection ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A procedure which releases warmth into its surroundings.lattice energy: The quantity of energy released upon formation of a crystalline ionic heavy from gaseous ions.

Definition the Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is an estimate of the bond toughness in ionic compounds. The is identified as the warmth of development for ions of opposite fee in the gas phase to incorporate into one ionic solid. As an example, the lattice energy of sodium chloride, NaCl, is the energy released when gaseous Na+ and Cl– ion come with each other to form a lattice of alternative ions in the NaCl crystal.

extNa^+ (g) + extCl^- (g) ightarrow extNaCl (s) ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Delta H=-787.3 ext kJ/mol

The an unfavorable sign that the power is indicative of one exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice power can be assumed of as the power required to separate a mole of one ionic solid right into the gaseous kind of its ions (that is, the reverse of the reaction shown above).


NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ion (Na+) and also chloride(Cl–) ions, shown in purple and green respectively, alternating in the decision lattice of solid NaCl.


Alternatively, lattice power can be assumed of together the energy required to separate a mole of an ionic solid right into the gaseous type of its ions (that is, the reverse of the reaction shown above).

Lattice energy cannot be determined experimentally as result of the difficulty in isolating gaseous ions. The energy value have the right to be approximated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it deserve to be calculation theoretically v an electrostatic examination of the decision structure.

Factors influence Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and also Lande presented the following model for lattice energy:

E = - frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 pi epsilon_o r_o (1-frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which relies on the decision geometry; z+ is the charge variety of the cation; z– is the charge number of the anion; e is the elementary charge of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a properties of the compressibility the the solid; epsilon _o is the permittivity of free space; and r0 is the distance to the the next ion.

This model emphasizes 2 main components that add to the lattice power of an ionic solid: the fee on the ions, and also the radius, or size, that the ions. The effect of those components is:

as the fee of the ion increases, the lattice power increasesas the size of the ions increases, the lattice power decreases

Lattice energies are also important in predicting the solubility the ionic solids in H2O. Ionic link with smaller sized lattice energies often tend to be more soluble in H2O.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe fee on the cations and also anions in one ionic compound have the right to be determined by the loss or acquire of valence electrons vital in bespeak to achieve stable, noble gas digital configurations.The variety of cations and also anions that are merged in an ionic link is the simplest proportion of totality integers that have the right to be an unified to reach electrical neutrality.The cation comes before the anion in both the written form and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any type of of the facets of team 18 of the regular table, which space monatomic and, v very limited exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net fee of zero, i m sorry occurs when an atom or molecule/compound has actually no surplus or deficit that electrons.empirical formula: The most basic whole-number proportion between elements in a formula of a compound.polyatomic ion: one ion composed of numerous atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic link is developed through the transport of one or an ext valence electrons, frequently from a steel to a non-metal, i beg your pardon produces a cation and an anion that are bound together by an attractive electrostatic force. ~ above a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, such as sodium chloride (NaCl), type a crystalline lattice and are solids at normal temperatures and also pressures.


Crystalline Lattice: salt chloride crystal lattice


The charge on the cations and anions is established by the number of electrons compelled to accomplish stable noble gas electronic configurations. The ionic composition is then defined by the requirement that the resulting compound be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to combine magnesium (Mg) and also bromine (Br) to get an ionic compound, we very first note the electronic configurations of this atoms (valence level in suggested in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In order to achieve noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom demands to lose its two valence electrons, if the bromine atom, which has actually 7 valence electrons, needs one additional electron to to fill its outer shell. Therefore, for the resulting compound to it is in neutral, two bromine anions must incorporate with one magnesium cation to kind magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any ratio that 2 bromine atoms to 1 magnesium atom will meet the two demands above, the formula because that ionic compound is commonly presented as the empirical formula, or the easiest whole-number proportion of atom with confident integers.

Note the the cation constantly precedes the anion both in written type and in formulas. In the written form, when the cation name is normally the exact same as the element, the suffix that single-atom anions is adjusted to –ide, together in the situation of sodium chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, that suffix can vary, but is commonly either –ate or –ite,as in the instances of sodium phosphate and calcium nitrite, depending on the identity of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and also F– integrate to form LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and also Cl– incorporate to type CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and also O2- combine to form FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and also S2- combine to type Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and also SO42- incorporate to kind Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and also PO43- incorporate to kind (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and also ClO2– incorporate to form KClO2

Video Summary


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented together the finish transfer the valence electrons, frequently from a metal to a non-metal.In reality, electron thickness remains shared between the constituent atoms, definition all bonds have actually some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature the a bond is figured out by the family member electronegativities the the atoms involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent bond that has a partial ionic character to it, together a result of the distinction in electronegativity between the two bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure of the propensity of an atom to lure electrons to itself.covalent character: The partial sharing of electrons in between atoms that have actually an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical compound are commonly classified through the bonds between constituent atoms. There space multiple type of attractive forces, including covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are normally presented together the complete loss or gain of one or much more valence electron from a steel to a nonmetal, causing cations and anions that are hosted together through attractive electrostatic forces.


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Ionic bonding: The formation of one ionic bond in between lithium and also fluorine to form LiF.


Example the a polar covalent bond: once a carbon atom forms a bond with fluorine, they share a pair the electrons. However, because fluorine is an ext highly electronegative 보다 carbon, it attracts that mutual electron pair closer to itself and thus creates an electric dipole. The lowercase greek delta written over the atom is supplied to show the visibility of partial charges. This link is thought about to have features of both covalent and also ionic bonds.


In reality, the bond between these atom is more complex than this design illustrates. The bond created between any kind of two atom is no a completely ionic bond. All bonding interactions have actually some covalent character because the electron thickness remains shared in between the atoms. The degree of ionic versus covalent character of a bond is established by the distinction in electronegativity in between the ingredient atoms. The larger the difference, the an ext ionic the nature that the bond. In the conventional presentation, bonds room designated together ionic when the ionic aspect is higher than the covalent facet of the bond. Bond that autumn in in between the two extremes, having actually both ionic and also covalent character, are classified together polar covalent bonds. Together bonds room thought of as consisting the partially charged positive and an unfavorable poles.

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Though ionic and also covalent character stand for points follow me a continuum, these designations space frequently useful in understanding and comparing the macroscopic nature of ionic and also covalent compounds. Because that example, ionic compounds commonly have greater boiling and also melting points, and also they are additionally usually more soluble in water than covalent compounds.