native the first, Estella treats Pip v contempt anddeliberately humiliates him. Yet his response is come love her. Why?

The most obvious answer is the he is attractive to herbeauty and her society superiority; she is the far princess of fairytales. And also so the the prospect of Pip"s gaining her love would beremote together well.

There are less romantic possibilities.

Pip, that is habitually mistreated, expects come beabused and is comfortable gift abused (this is not the same thing together likingor wanting to it is in abused). Estella"s cruelty fits hisexpectation of abuse, his sense of powerlessness, and also his short selfesteem, for this reason he is attracted to her.

A variant of the expectation-of-abuse theory is thatPip"s sense of guilt requires punishment, i beg your pardon Estella amply provides.Pip discover the urge to punish himself when, in reaction to hertreatment of him, that kicks the wall surface and "took a hard twist at my hair"(page 61).

Michal Peled Ginsburg supplies a psychologically moresubtle and sophisticated explanation: "The desire because that Estella and Pip"sfeeling the insufficiency room two sides of the same coin: desire is thefeeling of a lack. The is Estella"s perfection and also self-sufficiency (herpride) that show Pip the he is lacking, and also it is the reality that shemakes the feel doing not have that transforms she in his eyes to a perfect andtotally self-sufficient creature."

Ross H. Dabney put a various spin ~ above Pip"srelationship with Estella; Pip "is pertained to with impersonalthings–with class, v status, through habits, occupations, gestures, andlanguage standard in a certain social milieu." Thus, the loves whatEstella represents, not what /who she is. This view is not incompatiblewith the other theories suggested.

This list is no intended to it is in definitive, but to wake up yourthinking and to encourage friend to discover your very own interpretations the Pip"slove.

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Miss Havisham and also Satis House, both in ruins, representwealth and also social standing for Pip; the irony is obvious. Their decayedstate prefigures the emptiness of Pip"s dream of increasing

in social status and of so beingworthy that Estella. V them, Dickens extend his satire that societyfrom the abuse that children and criminals come the corruption that wealth.Miss Havisham"s fawning, self-interested, envious relatives and theircompetition for she wealth highlight the evil effects of the love ofmoney. Dickens look at the valuing the money and status over every else as aprimary drive in society, which is overcame by the mercantile middleclass.

Miss Havisham and her decayed house have actually anotherrelationship; that parallels the hurt state of she mind. By stoppingtime, symbolized by the clocks all reading twenty come nine, MissHavisham has actually stopped her life, which thereby becomes death-in-life. Bywilfully protecting against her life at a minute of pain and humiliation, sheindulges her own anger, self-pity, and desire for revenge; she imaginesher death as "the finished curse" ~ above the man who jilted she (page87). In she revenge, i beg your pardon destroys her life, she is like a kid whohurts chin in its anger at who else.

The decay approximately her likewise represents she relationshipwith others. She relationships room symbiotic, together we debated in class.Her relatives try to feed off she wealth, and also she feeds off your envyand subservience. The feeding partnership is symbolized by the mice,which eat the bridal cake and also which she cases have gnawed at herheart. She even imagines it s her laid the end on the table because that theirconsumption after she death. Miss out on Havisham feeds off both Estella andPip to attain her own ends. The feeding or attempting come feed off ofothers because that self-gratification is one manifestation of thedehumanization or depersonalization the runs v the novel;repeatedly characters use others as objects, to boost their ownprestige and self-image, choose Pumblechook constantly acquisition credit andMrs. Joe raising Pip "by hand."

Depersonalizing humans by using them as objects issuch a heinous ethical transgression that it is figured out as a crime.Pip phone call Pumblechook "that basest of swindlers"; acquisition credit forevents come which he has actually no connection, he takes Pip "into custody, witha appropriate of patronage that left all his previous criminality far behind"(page 103). Due to the fact that of the dehumanizing focus on wealth and also status,society itself is implicitly accused that criminality. Together the crueltiesand destructive after-effects of society"s values disclose themselves,society is condemned together criminal.

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Miss Havisham urges Estella come entrap Pip and breakhis heart, because that practice. Estella complies, and also they beat a card game,Beggar mine Neighbor. Later, miss Havisham explicitly urges Pip to loveEstella:

"Love her, love her, love her! If she favoursyou, love her. If she wounds you, love her. If she tears her heart topieces–and together it gets older and also stronger–it will tear deeper–love her,love her, love her!"... "Hear me, Pip! I embraced her to it is in loved. Ibred her and also educated her to it is in loved. I emerged her right into what sheis, that she could be loved. Love her!"... "I"ll call you," claimed she, in the samehurried passionate whisper, "what real love it. It is remote devotion,unquestioning self-humiliation, utter submission, trust and beliefagainst yourself and versus the entirety world, providing up your wholeheart and soul to the smiter–as i did!" (page 240). What type of love is she describing (if the feel she describes areindeed love)? carry out Pip"s feelings for Estella and his relationship to herresemble the "love" miss out on Havisham describes? Is he, like miss out on Havisham,obsessed through his "love"? would it be imposing a modern-day concept top top Pipto say the he is addicted to love?

Though Pip is mindful that the love she refers to soundslike hate, despair, revenge, and also death, a curse rather than a blessing,he perseveres in his attachment for Estella. His attachment had actually andcontinues to have adverse impacts on him.

Pip, both in his dream the having an excellent expectations towin Estella and also in the present of those expectations, is passive;he waits because that others and also for events to act upon him and also give himdirection, meaning, and purpose. He wishes to come to be a gentlemanbecause that is unhappy with his status, and his desire to it is in a gentlemanmakes that unhappy. His feelings about Joe and also home do him feelguilty. When he is make a gentleman, he becomes a snob and leads afutile, empty life. Never ever in Estella"s existence is that happy, together he wellknows, yet he dreams of gift happy with her in part future, once MissHavisham will certainly bestow her upon him. That miss Havisham, as well asEstella, is guilty of manipulating Pip is obvious; is he likewise guilty ofthe very same offense? does that manipulate Estella in his thinking andfantasies?

Miss Havisham"s result on Estella is equally unhappy.Surrounded by miss Havisham"s conniving relatives and impressed by herexample and teachings, Estella is one emotionally abused child. Estellatoo is passive, taking her directions from miss out on Havisham; she tellsPip, "We have no choice, you and I, yet to obey our instructions" (page366). She becomes an completed flirt, heartlessly leading men on.She sees herself as an object; she needs to write miss Havisham "andreport just how I go on–I and the jewels" (page 271). It has actually been suggestedthat Estella hates herself. And worst of all, Estella has been robbedof the capability to love.

How major an violation is it that miss Havisham blightsEstella"s capacity to love? (Dostoevsky stated that hell is the ns ofthe ability to love.) Is her treatment of Pip and also Estella criminal?Dorothy valve Ghent trust "Miss Havisham is guilty of aggressionagainst life in using the 2 children, Pip and Estella, as inanimateinstruments of revenge for her broken heart, and she has been changedretributively right into a fungus." van Ghent brings up an amazing ideawith her referral to miss Havisham"s becoming a fungus (think that themice eat the cake and her heart); has using others had a negativeeffect on miss Havisham? (Van Ghent assigns one more significance tothis mutual change; she argues it reveals the characteristic lackof facility inner life the Dickens"s characters; for example, a greatdeal of miss out on Havisham"s inside life is transposed to the spiders andbeetles on her hearth.)

job 1 Pages 1-124 overview of Dickens Some basic Comments Dickens and culture The opening of GreatExpectations Pip"s sense of Guilt Day 2 Pages 125-253 Pip, Estella, and also Miss Havisham Day 3 Pages 254-366 Pip"s expectations Day 4 Pages 367-490 Redemption and also Love The ending

November6, 2005