The World vast Web Consortium (W3C) is the main global standards organization for the World wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3). The W3C mission is to command the World broad Web to its complete potential by emerging protocols and guidelines the ensure the long-term development of the Web.
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Contents:1 W3C History2 Specification mature 2.1 working draft (WD) 2.2 Candidate recommendation (CR) 2.3 Proposed referral (PR) 2.4 W3C reference (REC) 2.5 later on revisions3 Administration4 W3C membership 4.1 membership benefits5 W3C Standards
Founded and currently led by Tim Berners-Lee, the consortium is made up of member organizations which maintain full time staff because that the function of working together in the breakthrough of requirements for the World broad Web. Together of June 2016, the World wide Web Consortium (W3C) has an ext than 420 members.
The W3C also engages in education and outreach, creates software and also serves as an open forum for discussion about the Web.
The World broad Web Consortium (W3C) was started by Tim Berners-Lee after that left the European organization for Nuclear study (CERN) in October, 1994. The was established at the Massachusetts academy of an innovation Laboratory for computer system Science (MIT/LCS, CSAIL) with assistance from the european Commission and also the Defense advanced Research Projects agency (DARPA), which had actually pioneered the Internet and also its predecessor ARPANET.
The company tries come foster compatibility and also agreement among industry members in the fostering of new standards characterized by the W3C. Incompatible versions the HTML are offered by various vendors, resulting in inconsistency in just how web pages are displayed. The consortium do the efforts to gain all those vendors to carry out a collection of main point principles and also components i m sorry are chosen by the consortium.
It was originally intended the CERN organize the europe branch the W3C; however, CERN wished to focus on particle physics, not info technology. In April 1995, the French academy for study in computer system Science and Automation (INRIA) came to be the European host of W3C, through Keio University ending up being the Japanese branch in September 1996.
Starting in 1997, W3C created regional offices approximately the world. As of September 2009, it had actually eighteen human being Offices spanning Australia, the Benelux countries (Netherlands, Luxembourg, and also Belgium), Brazil, China, Finland, Germany, Austria, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, southern Korea, Morocco, south Africa, Spain, Sweden, and the unified Kingdom and Ireland.
In October 2012, W3C convened a ar of major web players and publishers to develop a MediaWiki wiki that seeks to file open internet standards referred to as the WebPlatform and WebPlatform Docs.
W3C specification maturation
Sometimes, once a specification becomes also large, it is separation into independent modules which can mature at their very own pace. Subsequent version of a module or specification are known as levels and also are denoted through the an initial integer in the location (e.g. CSS3 = Level 3). Succeeding revisions on each level are denoted by one integer adhering to a decimal allude (e.g. CSS2.1 = revision 1).
The W3C typical formation procedure is characterized within the W3C process document, outlining 4 (4) maturity levels with which each new standard or recommendation must progress.
1 – functioning draft (WD)
After sufficient content has actually been gathered native ‘editor drafts’ and also discussion, it might be released as a functioning draft (WD) for review by the community. A WD file is the an initial form the a standard that is publicly available. Comment by virtually anyone is accepted, though no assures are made v regard to action on any particular element comment upon.
At this stage, the standard paper may have far-ranging differences from its final form. Together such, anyone who implements WD standards must be prepared to substantially modify their implementations as the typical matures.
2 – Candidate reference (CR)
A candidate recommendation is a version of a standard that is more mature than the functioning draft (WD). In ~ this point, the group responsible because that the typical is satisfied the the traditional meets that goal. The objective of the CR is come elicit aid native the advance community as to how implementable the standard is.
The standard document may adjust further, yet at this point, far-reaching features are mainly decided. The architecture of those attributes can still change due come feedback indigenous implementors.
3 – Proposed referral (PR)
A proposed referral is the version of a traditional that has passed the prior two levels. The individuals of the standard carry out input. In ~ this stage, the document is it is registered to the W3C Advisory Council for final approval.
While this step is important, the rarely reasons any far-reaching changes to a traditional as it passes to the following phase.
Both candidates and also proposals may go into “last call” come signal that any type of further feedback must be provided.
4 – W3C referral (REC)
This is the most mature stage of development. At this point, the standard has actually undergone extensive review and also testing, under both theoretical and also practical conditions. The typical is currently endorsed through the W3C, indicating its readiness for deployment come the public, and also encouraging an ext widespread support amongst implementors and authors.
Recommendations deserve to sometimes be applied incorrectly, partially, or no at all, yet many standards specify two or much more levels that conformance the developers need to follow if they great to brand their product as W3C-compliant.
Later specification revisions
A recommendation may be to update or extended by separately-published, non-technical errata or editor drafts until sufficient comprehensive edits accumulate for producing a new edition or level the the recommendation. Additionally, the W3C publishes miscellaneous kinds of informative notes which are to be supplied as references.
Certification that specifications?
Unlike the ISOC and other worldwide standards bodies, the W3C walk not have a certification program. The W3C has decided, because that now, that it is not an ideal to start such a program, owing to the threat of creating more drawbacks for the neighborhood than benefits.
The W3 Consortium is jointly administered through the:
The W3C likewise has civilization Offices in 16 regions around the world. They work with their regional web neighborhoods to promote W3C technologies in neighborhood languages, broaden the W3C’s geographical base and encourage worldwide participation in W3C Activities.
The W3C has a staff team the ~80 people an international as the 2015. W3C is run by a monitoring team i m sorry allocates resources and designs strategy, led through CEO Jeffrey Jaffe (as of march 2010), former CTO the Novell. It likewise includes an advisory board which supports in strategy and legal matters and helps settle conflicts. The majority of standardization job-related is done by external experts in the W3C’s assorted working groups.
The Consortium is administrate by the membership. The perform of members is accessible to the public. Members encompass businesses, nonprofit organizations, universities, government entities, and individuals. Establishments join W3C to journey the direction of main point Web technology and exchange principles with industry and also research leaders.
The greatest russian find engine Yandex together a member the the W3C:
Membership needs are transparent except for one requirement: an application for membership have to be reviewed and also approved through the W3C. Many guidelines and requirements are stated in detail, yet there is no final guideline around the process or standards whereby membership can be lastly approved or denied.
The expense of member is offered on a sliding scale, depending on the personality of the company applying and also the nation in which that is located. Countries are categorized by the human being Bank’s most recent grouping by GNI (Gross national Income) per capita.
W3C member benefits
The W3C members themselves have indicated that what is most important to them around their membership is:Interaction. The possibility to interact and also work straight with the leading companies, organizations, and also individuals in the net world.Strategy. The capacity to carry out strategic direction come the Consortium through review of W3C activity proposals and operational policies.Participation. Authorized in W3C functioning Groups, interest Groups, and also Business Groups, shaping the innovations that allow businesses and their customers.
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) likewise benefit:Partnership. With a variety of online and also in-person opportunities, W3C helps SMEs accomplish their peers and also establish brand-new business relationships.Early Access. Agility can enable SMEs come out-perform your bigger rivals. Agility v Membership can help SMEs continue to be ahead of the competition and enter brand-new markets early.Leverage. Building a market around a brand-new usage of the Web can be a major obstacle because that the development of smaller sized companies. To bring an idea deployed come the scale of the Web, W3C standardization administer a unique opportunity come achieve large adoption on diverse software and also devices.Education. The world’s professionals on the web exchange and confront their points of watch in W3C groups. It’s difficult to beat conversations with W3C partners as a method to find out in depth just how the net works, and how to do it better.Promotion. SMEs can promote your commitment to open standards, through press release and home page testimonials, sponsorship visibility, interviews, and also more.
And research organizations also benefit:Forum for ideas. W3C is an open up forum because that the exchange of ideas and modern technology solutions, providing researchers insights from about the world.Bridge from research. W3C helps research study organizations establish a leg from their advancements to sector implementation.
W3C standards define an Open internet Platform because that application advance that has actually the unprecedented potential to allow developers to construct rich interactive experiences, powered by huge data stores, that are available on any kind of device. Return the boundaries of the platform proceed to evolve, market leaders speak practically in unison around how HTML5 will certainly be the cornerstone because that this platform. However the full strength that the platform depends on many an ext technologies the W3C and also its partners space creating, consisting of CSS, SVG, WOFF, the Semantic net stack, XML, and a selection of APIs.
W3C develops these technological specifications and guidelines v a procedure designed come maximize consensus around the content of a technological report, to ensure high technical and editorial quality, and to knife endorsement through W3C and also the more comprehensive community.
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W3C proceeds to evolve to administer the neighborhood a productive environment for developing Web standards. W3C standards:are produced following a consensus-based decision process;consider elements of accessibility, privacy, security, and also internationalization;reflect the views of diverse industries and an international stakeholders;balance speed, fairness, publicly accountability, and also quality;benefit indigenous Royalty-Free patent license commitments indigenous participants;are stable (and W3C seeks to ensure your persistence at the published URI);benefit from vast review from groups inside and also outside W3C;are downloadable at no cost;are kept in a predictable fashion;are strengthened with interoperability testing.
W3C and IETF standards (over net protocol suite):CGICSSDOMGRDDLHTMLMathMLOWLP3PPROVRDFSISRSKOSSMILSOAPSPARQLSRGSSSMLSVGVXMLXHTMLXHTML+VoiceXMLXML EventsXML SchemaXPathXQueryXSL-FOXSLTWCAGWOFFWSDLXForms